Evaluation of Barriers to Tourism Entrepreneurship Development in Rural Areas (Case Study: Tourism Target Villages - Chaldoran County, Iran)

Document Type : Original Article


University of Zanjan



Purpose- Development of the tourism industry in a proper way, followed by the promotion of tourism entrepreneurship, calls for adequate knowledge and understanding of the barriers and problems in this matter. In this regard, the present study tried to evaluate the barriers to the development of tourism entrepreneurship in tourism target villages of Chaldoran County.
Design/methodology/approach- The current study is descriptive-analytical in terms of nature and method, and applied according to its objectives. The statistical population in this study includes people living in villages targeted for tourism. To study this population, 212 questionnaires were arranged based on the modified Cochran's formula. Information and data were collected in 2018 using library and field studies (observation and completion of a questionnaire). After collecting information through questionnaires using simple random sampling, the data obtained after coding were analyzed by SPSS and Amos softwares applying descriptive and analytical statistical approaches.
Findings- The results showed that all the studied factors were effective in the failure of tourism entrepreneurship. Nevertheless, social barriers with a correlation coefficient of 1, physical and economic barriers with a coefficient of 0.91 had the greatest impact on barriers to tourism entrepreneurship in tourism target villages.
Practical implications- Rural tourism entrepreneurship, regarding the natural and cultural capacities in the villages, can play an important role in revitalizing the villages, creating employment and income for the people, protecting the natural, historical and cultural heritage, and finally providing integrated and sustainable rural development, because rural tourism is one of the types of tourism whose sustainable form in various economic, social and environmental dimensions, paves the way for achieving sustainable development of local communities.


  1. Aazami, M., Jalilian, S., & Hashemi Amin, N. (2015). Analyzing the socio-economic and environmental effects of rural tourism (Case study: Navareh Village). Journal of Tourism Planning and Development, 4(14), 154-174. [In Persian]. http://tourismpd.journals.umz.ac.ir/mobile/article_1133.html?lang=en
  2. Ahmad, A. R. Yusoff, W. F. W. Noor, H. M. & Ramin, A. K. (2012). Preliminary study of rural entrepreneurship development program in Malaysia. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship, 2(1), 1-8. https://ideas.repec.org/a/grg/02entp/v2y2012i1p1-8.html
  3. Alizade Azar, K., Ahmadtozeh, V., ، Aziziyan, S. (2015). An investigation on the barriers to the development of Mahabad tourism industry. Urban tourism, 2(3), 233-252. [In Persian]. https://jut.ut.ac.ir/article_58446.html
  4. Arbabyan, S., Zamani, Z., & Rahimi, M. (2014). The effect of tourism industry on the development of entrepreneurship. Journal of Tourism Planning and Development, 3(10), 126-146. [In Persian]. http://tourismpd.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_852.html
  5. Asgari, R., Shasoddini, A. & Kardvani, P. (2018). Presenting a futuristic model of entrepreneurship based on indigenous tourism target villages: A case Study Khoor and Biabank. Journal of Regional Planning, 8(31), 91-102. [In Persian]. http://jzpm.miau.ac.ir/article_3082.html
  6. Ashrafi, A., Hadi, F. (2019). The impact of tourism on developing Shiraz rural women entrepreneurship. Universidad y Sociedad11(4), 72-76. https://rus.ucf.edu.cu/index.php/rus/article/view/1294
  7. Augusto, J., Helena, M., & Gonçalves, V. (2013). Social value and organizational performance in non-profit social organizations: Social entrepreneurship, leadership, and socioeconomic context effects. Journalof Business Research, 66(10), 2139-2146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2013.02.040
  8. Azmi, A., & Razlansari, A. (2014). Assessment of plan of tourism aim villages on tourism development Shamshir and Khanghah villages in Paveh County. Journal of Applied Researches in Geographical Sciences, 14(34), 215-232. [In Persian]. https://jgs.khu.ac.ir/article-1-2106-fa.html
  9. Bagherifard, S. M., Jalali, M., Jalali, F., Khalili, P., Sharifi, S. (2013). Tourism entrepreneurship challenges and opportunities in Mazandaran. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research3(4), 842-846. [In Persian] https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi= =pdf
  10. Bennett, R., Dann, S. (2000). The changing experience of Australian female entrepreneurs. Gender, work & organization, 7(2), 75-83. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1468-0432.00095.
  11. Campón-Cerro, A. M., Hernández-Mogollón, J. M., & Alves, H. (2017). Sustainable improvement of competitiveness in rural tourism destinations: The quest for tourist loyalty in Spain. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management6(3), 252-266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2016.04.005
  12. Chambers, E., & Shaw, S. (2004). A primer on western Candian entrepreneurship. Western Centre for Economic Research University of Alberta Information Bulletin, 14(76), 1-62. https://era.library.ualberta.ca/items/d50622a8-08f6-4c1d-a0f1-3f4de56db024/view/d836b0cf-f6f4-45ab-a611-a0a26a4b05f1/76.pdf
  13. Dadvar- khani, F., Rezvani, M., Imeni Gheshlagh, S., & Bozarjemehry, K. (2011). Analyze the role of tourism in the development of rural youth entrepreneurship (The case study: Knadovan Village, Osku Province). Human Geography Research, 43(4), 169-195. [In Persian]. https://journals.ut.ac.ir/article_24518.html
  14. Deputy of Statistics, Information and GIS. (2018). the latest country divisions of the study area. Urmia: Governor of West Azerbaijan Province. [In Persian]
  15. Dinis, A. (2011). Tourism, niche strategy and networks as factors for both entrepreneurship and rural sustainability. In IX Rural entrepreneurship conference: a sustainable rural, 23-24.  https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Vladimir_Kulchitsky/post /109318.pdf
  16. Roknoddin Eftekhari, A. R., & Sojasi Qeidari, H. (2014). Rural development with emphasis on entrepreneurship: Definitions, attitudes and experiments (3th ed). Tehran: SAMT Publication. [In Persian]
  17. Rokniddin Eftekhari, A. R., Pourtaheri, M., & Fazli, N. (2014). Analysis of factors affecting the development of entrepreneurship in rural tourism. Journal of Tourism Planning and Development, 3(8), 87-107. [In Persian]. http://tourismpd.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_664.html
  18. Egbe, O., Grace, E., & Ihuoma, H. (2013). Relationship between counselling and entrepreneurship development skills of Nigerian final year undergraduates. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences84, 120-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.06.521
  19. Farahani, H., Hoseini, S., & Bayazidi, S. (2018). Analysis of Factors Affecting Rural Tourism Entrepreneurship Case Study: Zoeram rural district, Shirvan Township. Journal of Rural Development Strategies, 5(3), 329-346. [In Persian]. http://rdsj.torbath.ac.ir/article_819.
  20. Farahani, H., Manoochehri, S. (2015). Identification of obstacles and problems of tourism development in rural areas of tourism goal in the West of Marivan County. Journal of Research and Rural Planning, 4(1), 161-172. [In Persian]. https://jrrp.um.ac.ir/article/view/23819/article_25764.html
  21. Ghadiri Masoum M., Cheraghi, M., Kazemi, N., & Zaree Z. (2014). Analysis of barriers to entrepreneurial development in rural areas: Bigelow Ghani district, city of Zanjan. Journal of Space Economy and Rural Development, 7(3), 3-17. [In Persian]. http://serd.khu.ac.ir/article-1-1949-fa.html
  22. Ghobadi, P., Papzan, A. H., Zarafshani, K., & Geravandi, S. (2012). Study of rural tourism limitations and problems by Ysubg Grounded Theory, Case study: Upper Charmale Village, Kermanshah. Journal of Geography and Territorial Spatial Arrangement, 2(5), 89-104. [In Persian]. https://journals.usb.ac.ir/article_888.html
  23. Heidari Sareban, V. (2012). Prioritizing major barriers to rural women's entrepreneurship, عsing AHP Method. Case study: Ardabil province. Women's Studies Sociological and Psychological, 10(2), 159-177. [In Persian]. https://jwsps.alzahra.ac.ir/article_1430.html
  24. Henderson, J. (2002). Building the rural economy with high-growth entrepreneurs. Economic Review-Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, 87(3), 45-75.  https://search.proquest.com/openview/bdc1a6dd8eb52e1dbc6af165c8eadd94/1
  25. Hoseini, S.P. (2015). Analysis of barriers to development and improvement of tourism entrepreneurship in rural areas and its strengthening mechanisms, Case Study: Zoeram County, Shirvan Township. Master's Thesis University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.
  26. Hosseini, S., Monshizadeh, R., Razavian, M., & Moridsadat, P. (2019). Exploring barriers of rural tourism to achieve sustainable economic development with an entrepreneurial approach, (Case study: Kiar County; Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province). Quarterly of Social Studies and Research in Iran, 8(3), 609-637. [In Persian]. https://jisr.ut.ac.ir/article_73405.html
  27. Hrivnak, G. A., & Sherman, C. L. (2010). The power of nascency: Realizing the potential of service-learning in an unscripted future. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 18(2), 198-215.  https://www.kansascityfed.org/publicat/ECONREV/Pdf/3q02hend.pdf.
  28. Iskandarini, K. (2014). The impact of entrepreneurial barrier toward entrepreneurial intention for decreasing unemployment through community empowerment. Procedia-social and Behavioral Sciences115, 166-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.02.425
  29. Izadi, H., & Barzegar, S. (2013). Entrepreneurship and rural development, lessons from the experiences of China. Journal of Rural Research, 4(4), 901-918. [In Persian]. https://jrur.ut.ac.ir/article_50423.html
  30. Jaafar, M., Rasoolimanesh, S. M., & & Tuan Lonik, K. A. (2015). Tourism growth and entrepreneurship: Empirical analysis of development of rural highlands. Tourism Management Perspectives14, 17-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2015.02.001
  31. Jaković, B., Tubić, D., Đurović, M. (2015). Sustainable development of rural tourism by developing new and authentic tourism products. In 3rd International Scientific Conference Tourism in Southern and Eastern Europe. Retrieved from https://ssrn.com/abstract=2637276
  32. Karimzadeh, H. Nikjoo, M., sadrmosavi, M., & Kohestani, H. (2014). Identify the factors in creating entrepreneurial opportunities in the tourism sector in rural areas using structural equation model (SME). Geography and Environmental Planning, 25(2), 269-290. [In Persian]. https://gep.ui.ac.ir/article_18655.html
  33. Kord, B., Abtin, A. (2013). Review the factors affecting on development of rural entrepreneurship in sistan and baluchestan province (with focus on developing rural growth centers, developing in formation and communication technologies and empowerment of rural women). Journal of Geography and Development, 11(32), 1-14. https://www.sid.ir/en/Journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=329143
  34. Latifi, S., Naderi Mehdiei, K., & Zuleikhaei Sayar, L. (2013). Barriers affecting the development of tourism activities in rural areas of Hamedan (With emphasis onTourism target villages). Journal of Regional Planning, 3(9), 77-87. [In Persian]. http://jzpm.miau.ac.ir/article_25.html
  35. Li, C., Ahmed, N., & Qalati, S. A. (2019). Impact of Gender-Specific Causes on Women Entrepreneurship: An Opportunity Structure for Entrepreneurial Women in Rural Areas. Journal of Entrepreneurship & Organization Managemen8(1), 1-9. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sikander_Qalati/publication/335541274
  36. Lordkipanidze, M., Brezet, H., & Backman, M. (2005). The entrepreneurship factor in sustainable tourism development. Journal of cleaner production13(8), 787-798. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0959652604000605
  37. Mehrdost, K., & Yaghuobi, H. (2011). Barriers to entrepreneurship development in rurals of Zanjan province and providing solutions for it. National Congress of Modern Agricultural Sciences & Technologies, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran. [In Persian] https://civilica.com/doc/145528/
  38. Mitchell, M., & Hall, D. (2005). Rural tourism as sustainable business: key themes and issues. Rural tourism and sustainable business, 3-14.
  39. Najda-Janoszka, M., & Kopera, S. (2014). Exploring barriers to innovation in tourism industry the case of southern region of Poland. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 110, 190-201. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187704281305502X
  40. Nemirschi, N., & Craciun, A. (2010). Entrepreneurship and tourism development in rural areas: case of Romania. Romanian Economic and Business Review5(1), 138. https://ideas.repec.org/a/rau/journl/v5y2010i1p138-143.html
  41. Perales, R. M. Y. (2002). Rural tourism in Spain. Annals of tourism Research29(4), 1101-1110. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(02)00025-7
  42. Petrin, T. (1994). Entrepreneurship as an economic force in rural development Keynote paper presented at the Seventh FAO/REU International Rural Development Summer School. Herrsching, Germany, 8-14 September 1994.FAO, Regional Office for Europe! Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. http://www.fao.org/docrep/W6882e/w6882e02.html
  43. Rahmani, B., Moridsadat, P., & Shahed, H. (2018). Tourism potential in the development of sustainable entrepreneurship in rural areas (Case study: Central District of Hamadan). Journal of Urban Management, 17(50), 65-97. [In Persian]. https://www.sid.ir/fa/Journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=483885
  44. Rezaei, A., Zarafshani, K., Shiri, N., Khoshmaram, M. (2016). Identifying Tourism Entrepreneurship Development Constraints: Case Study in Marvdasht Towenship. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Agriculture, 3(3), 57-70. [In Persian]. https://jead.gau.ac.ir/article_3301.html
  45. Rezaei, B. (2017). Investigating of effects to tourism on the entrepreneurship development in coastal villages (Case Study: Coastal villages of Saman County, Charmahal and Bakhtiari province). Geographical Studies of coastal areas Journal, 1(1), 115-139. [In Persian]. https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=118411
  46. Rezaei, R. (2014). Study the Role of Entrepreneurship in the development of rural cooperatives. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Agriculture, 1(1), 85-102. [In Persian]. https://jead.gau.ac.ir/article_1838.html
  47. Rezaei, R., & Asadpaski, A. (2015). Analyzing the barriers to tourism development in rural areas of Qazvin province (Case study: Gazarkhan village). Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development Research, 46(2), 277-284. [In Persian]. https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=464683
  48. Rostami, F., & Ehsanifar, T. (2018). Accelerators of rural entrepreneurship development. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Agriculture, 5(2), 71-82. [In Persian]. https://jead.gau.ac.ir/article_4364.html
  49. Rusu, S., Csorba, L. M., Cureteanu, R., & Isac, F. L. (2012). Tourism Entrepreneurship and its Role in the Activity of SMEs in Romania. Journal of Economics and Business Research18(2), 23-32. https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=567304
  50. Saeedi kia, M. (2003). Introduction to entrepreneurship, (1th ed). Tehran: Spas Publication. [In Persian]
  51. Samad Aghaei, J. (2003). Entrepreneurial organizations. (2th ed).  Tehran: Higher Institute of Management Education and Research and Planning. [In Persian]
  52. Statistical Center of Iran. (2016), Statistical yearbook, Khorasan Razavi Province. Tehran: Statistical Center of Iran. [In Persian]
  53. Suhir, E., & Kovach, Z. (2003). Administrative barriers to entrepreneurship in central Asia. www.cipe.org/pdf/publications/fs/suhirkovach.pdf.
  54. Yasouri, M, & Vatankhah Kalurazi. Z. (2015). The role of tourism in the development of rural women entrepreneurship (Gurab-Pass Village, Fooman City). Arid Regions Geographic Studies, 5(20), 46-59. [In Persian]. http://journals.hsu.ac.ir/jarhs/article-1-723-fa.html