Effects of Tourism on Rural Employment (Case Study: Varkāneh Village of Hamedan County)

Document Type : Original Article


Bu-Ali Sina University, Iran.


Purpose-The effects of tourism on rural employment in the village of Varkāneh in Hamedan County, Iran were investigated. Rural tourism is one of the practical solutions to solve the problem of employment in these areas. This industry with its special dynamics can have major effects on the economic, social and environmental situation, especially at the local level.
Methodology-The study is an applied correlational-descriptive study using a quantitative approach and a survey methodology. The research population was composed of 250 households out of whom 148 people were sampled by simple randomization. The sample size was determined by Krejcie and Morgan’s table. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire whose items were arranged in three sections. Data were analyzed by path analysis and structural equation modeling using the WarpPLS software package.
Findings-The results show that the variables of economy, resources, occupation, agriculture, social capital, and welfare have directly influenced employment. The strongest impact on rural employment has been related to economy with a path coefficient of 0.364. In total, 56 percent of the dependent variable (increase in rural employment) in Verkane village is explained by five factors of economic effects, infrastructure and resources, agricultural effects, social capital, and social welfare.
Originality/value-Tourism, through the development of infrastructure such as the development of residences, transportation, shops and public places, telephone and internet, and infrastructures such as bridges, roads and mosques, has led to employment growth in the studied area. Therefore, one of the solutions for tourism development is to create tourism infrastructures in rural areas in such a way that this will lead to an increase in the number of tourists. The results of this research can help to plan for the development of tourism in rural areas and especially to solve the problem of employment in these areas.


Main Subjects

  1. Avram, A. C. (2020). The impact of rural tourism on Wellbeing: Romania's Case. In New Trends and Opportunities for Central and Eastern European Tourism (pp. 281-298). IGI Global.
  2. Bačík, R., Mudrik, M., Štefko, R., & Kot, S. (2016) Analysis of tourism travel trends after 2014. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, 7(1), 88-93. https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=462291
  3. Besculides, A., Lee, M. E., & McCormick, P. J. (2002). Residents' perceptions of the cultural benefits of tourism. Annals of tourism research29(2), 303-319.‏ https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(01)00066-4
  4. Castellani, , Sala, S., & Pitea, D. (2007). A new method for tourism carrying capacity assessment. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment106, 365-374.‏ https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20163274720
  5. Choudhury, K., Dutta, P., and Patgiri, S. (2018). Rural tourism of North East India: Prospects and Challenges. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) 23 (2), 69-74. https://DOI:9790/0837-2302046974
  6. Fennell, D. A., & Cooper, C. (2020). Sustainable tourism: Principles, contexts and practices(Vol. 6). Channel View Publications. https://doi:1080/14724049.2020.1763009
  7. Ferreira, J., Silvério, A. C., Vaz, M., & Fernandes, P. O. (2023). The relationship between rural tourism, sustainable tourism and outdoor activities: A systematic literature review. Perspectives and Trends in Education and Technology, 597-608. DOI:1007/978-981-19-6585-2_53
  8. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research18(1), 39-50.‏ https://doi.org/10.1177/002224378101800104
  9. Ghasemloo, H., Hossienzadeh, A., & Roumiani, A. (2022). Analysis of the effects of tourism development on the livability of rural areas, Case study: Tourism Villages of Tarom County. Geography and Territorial Spatial Arrangement12(44), 81-116. [In Persian] https://DOI:10.22111/gaij.2022.41778.3005
  10. Guaita Martínez, J. M., Martín Martín, J. M., Salinas Fernández, J. A., & Mogorrón-Guerrero, H. (2019). An analysis of the stability of rural tourism as a desired condition for sustainable tourism. Journal of Business Research, 100, 165-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.03.033
  11. Guy, J. W. (2003). Tourism and Comprehensive Vision. (Translated by A. Parsaian & M. A’rabi). Tehran: Cultural Research Bureau. [In Persian]
  12. Hara, T. (2008). Quantitative tourism industry analysis: Introduction to input/output, social accounting matrix modeling and tourism satellite accounts. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann Routledge.
  13. He, H., Wang, S., Tuo, S., & Du, J. (2022). Analysis of the effect of rural tourism in promoting farmers’ income and its influencing factors–Based on survey data from Hanzhong in Southern Shaanxi. Sustainability14(3), 1289. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031289
  14. Hezarjaribi, J., & Najafi, M.M. (2012). A Study On The Satisfaction Rate Of Foreign Tourists In Iran. Geography And Environmental Planning (University Of Isfahan), 23 (3), 133-146. https://sid.ir/paper/153195/en
  15. Jatav, S. (2023). Current trends in sustainable tourism in the Indian Context. In Handbook of Research on Sustainable Tourism and Hotel Operations in Global Hypercompetition(pp. 391-412). IGI Global. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-6684-4645-4.ch018
  16. Karyawanto, H. Y., Handayaningrum, W., Mariasa, I. N., & Kristiandari, D. (2023, March). Visitors’ perceptions of performing arts in tourism village: An Indonesian Experience. In International Joint Conference on Arts and Humanities 2022 (IJCAH 2022)(pp. 1635-1641). Atlantis Press. DOI:2991/978-2-38476-008-4_176
  17. Khartishvili, L., Muhar, A., Dax, T., Khelashvili, I. (2019). Rural Tourism in Georgia in Transition: Challenges for Regional Sustainability. Sustainability, 11, 410.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su11020410
  18. Khoshkam, M., & Rahimi, R. (2023). COVID-19 Effects, Challenges and Recovery of Rural Tourism in Iran. In Tourism and Hospitality in Asia: Crisis, Resilience and Recovery(pp. 179-200). Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore. Http://article_2120_26f4da60430d0789a584fd714a423a8f.pdf
  19. Kim, M. J., Lee, M. J., Lee, C. K., & Song, H. J. (2012). Does gender affect Korean tourists' overseas travel? Applying the model of goal-directed behavior. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research17(5), 509-533.‏ https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2011.627355
  20. Kunáková, L., Štefko, R., & Bačík, R. (2016). Evaluation of the landscape potential for recreation and tourism on the example of microregion Mincol (Slovakia). E-Review of Tourism Research, 13(1-2), 335-354. https://ertr.tamu.edu/files/2016/03/3.-eRTR_ARN_Vol.13-No1.2_Kunakova-et-al.pdf
  21. Lundberg, D. E. (2004). Tourism Economics. (Translated by M. R. Foroutan). Tehran: Chape va Nashre Bazargani. [In Persian]
  22. Lea. J. (1999). Tourism and Development in the Third World. (Eftakhari, A. R. et al., Trans.). Tehran: Chape va Nashre Bazargani. [In Persian]
  23. Li, T., Liu, J., Zhu, H., & Zhang, S.(2018).Business characteristics and efficiency of rural tourism enterprises: an empirical study from China. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 23 (6), 549-559. https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2018.1483957
  24. Li, Y., Yao, Z., & Guo, Z. (2023). Willingness to pay and preferences for rural tourism attributes among urban residents: A discrete choice experiment in China. Economic Analysis and Policy77, 460-471. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eap.2022.11.020
  25. Liu, C. Z. (2010). Rural development and rural tourism in Taiwan. Asian Journal of Arts and Sciences, 1(2), 211-227. https://libap.nhu.edu.tw:8081/Ejournal/AM01010204.pdf
  26. Lotfi, H., Moradi, A., Khalifa, A. & Haghighi Motlagh, Z. (2015). Explaining the effects of tourism on rural sustainability (Study Case: Shamshak Village, Tehran Province), Journal of Human Settlements Planning Studies, 11(37), 119-133. [In Persian] https://sid.ir/paper/508577/fa
  27. Mirzaee, R. (2018). Impacts of Rural Tourism on Employment in Uramanat Region of Iran. Village and Development12(4), 49-76. [In Persian] http://rvt.agri-peri.ac.ir/article_59218.html?lang=en
  28. Mirzaei, R. (2009). The impact of rural tourism development on employment in Oramanat region of Kermanshah. Journal of Village and development, 12(4), 49-76. [In Persian] https://sid.ir/paper/94660/fa
  29. Mohammadi, S., Talaati, M., Asadi, S. & Manoochehri, S. (2018). Analyzing of the Impact of Tourism on sustainable livelihoods of rural residents (Case Study: Uraman Village of Sarvabad city). Journal of Applied Research of Geographical Sciences, 33 (1) :191-208. [In Persian] http://georesearch.ir/article-1-209-en.html
  30. Mura, L., & Kljucnikov, A. (2018). Small Businesses in Rural Tourism and Agrotourism: Study from Slovakia. Economics and Sociology, 11(3), 286-300. https://DOI:10.14254/2071-789X.2018/11-3/17
  31. Mura, L., & Šulterová, S. (2012). Manažment rozvoja vidieckeho turizmu a agroturizmu v regiónoch Slovenska a ich perspektívy. Bučovice: Martin Stříž168.‏
  32. Paris, C. (2006). Multiple “homes”, dwelling, hyper-mobility, and emergent transnational second home ownership. In ENHR International Conference, Llubijana, Slovenia, 2Á5 July. Citeseer. http://enhr2006ljubljana.Uirs.Si/publish/-W24_Paris.Pdf
  33. Prananta, A. W., Rahwawati, A. D., Budiyanti, S., & Kusumah, W. (2022). Tourism Industrialization Model and the Effects on the Income, Employment Opportunity, and Economy in Sumenep City, Beach 9, Gili Genting District. Khazanah Sosial4(2), 284-294. https://doi.org/10.15575/ks.v4i2.17636
  34. Pranita, D., Sarjana, S., & Musthofa, B. M. (2022). Mediating Role of Sustainable Tourism and Creative Economy to Improve Community Wellbeing.  J. Hosp. Tour. Leis11, 727-740. https://doi.org/10.46222/ajhtl.19770720.257
  35. Radovic, D., Strielkowski, W., Wang, J., Cepel, M., & Rausser, G. (2017). Economic Analysis of Sustainable Tourism: a Case Study of Nottingham. Transformations in Business & Economics, 16(2B), 703-714. https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?3D%3D&crl=c
  36. Reeder, R. J., & Brown, D. M. (2005). Recreation, tourism, and rural well-being(No. 7). Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.‏
  37. Romanenko, Y. O., Boiko, V. O., Shevchuk, S. M., Barabanova, V. V., & Karpinska, N. V. (2020). Rural development by stimulating agro-tourism activities. International Journal of Management (IJM)11(4), 605-613. http://www.iaeme.com/IJM/index.asp
  38. Scutariu, A. L., & Scutariu, P. (2023). Perceptions of the local government and the residents regarding rural tourism development effects. Survey in the Suceava County-Romania. Ciência Rural53. DOI:1590/0103-8478cr20210911
  39. Shalchian-Rabe, N. (2016). The Role of Tourism in Economic Development, Job Creation and Cleansing Deprivation in The Coasts and Islands of The Persian Gulf (Case Study: Qeshm Free Zone). The Persian Gulf Political-Cultural Studies Journal, 3(8), 33-64. [In Persian] https://sid.ir/paper/257162/en
  40. Sharpley, R. (2011). Rural Tourism. (Translated by R. Manshizadeh et al.,). Tehran: Manshizadeh. [In Persian]
  41. Sharply, R. (2002).  Rural tourism and the challenge of tourism diversification: the case of Cyprus. Tourism management23(3), 233-244. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(01)00078-4
  42. Soteriades, M., Tyrogala, E., & Varvaressos, S. (2009). Contribution of networking and clustering in rural tourism business, tourism: An international multidisciplinary. Journal of Tourism, 4(11), 35-56. https://doi.org/10.26215/tourismos.v4i4.137
  43. Streimikiene, D., & Bilan, Y. (2015). Review of rural tourism development theories. Transformations in Business & Economics, 14(2), 21-34. http://www.transformations.knf.vu.lt/35/ge35.pdf
  44. Timothy, D. J. (2023). Heritage Tourism in Africa. Cultural Heritage and Tourism in Africa, 281. https://doi:10.4324/9781003153955-18
  45. Topcu, E. D. (2016). Agro-tourism: A rural planning instrument for sustainability of agricultural lands. Journal of environmental protection and ecology, 17(2), 813-821.
  46. Toulabi Nejad M., Manzam Esmailpor A., Rahmani S., Sadeghi K. (2022). The effects of tourism on the promotion of rural welfare (Case study: coastal villages' city of Chabahar). Journal of applied researches in geographical sciences, 22 (65), 283-301. [In Persian] https://doi.52547/jgs.22.65.283
  47. Vaishar, A., & Šťastná, M. (2023). Economically underdeveloped rural regions in Southern Moravia and possible strategies for their future development. Journal of Rural Studies97, 356-364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2022.12.024
  48. Vázquez, D. L. T., Trechera, H., & Morales, F. (2012). Rural tourism as an alternative to the development for rural areas and the creation of employment. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(20), 162-174. https://repositorio.uloyola.es/bitstream/handle/20.500.12412/1771
  49. Wang, Y., Han, L., & Ma, X. (2022). International tourism and economic vulnerability. Annals of Tourism Research94, 103388. DOI:1016/j.annals.2022.103388
  50. Wijijayanti, T., Agustina, Y., Winarno, A., Istanti, L. N., and Dharma, B., A. (2020). Rural Tourism: A Local Economic Development. Australasian Accounting, Business and Finance Journal, 14 (1), 5-13. https://ro.uow.edu.au/aabfj/vol14/iss1/2/
  51. Yasori, M., Azmi, A., & Heidari, F. (2018). Study of the Occuption Potentials of Tourism in the villages of tourism Destination of Pave County. Geographical Journal of Tourism Space7(28), 95-108. [In Persian] https://gjts.malayer.iau.ir/article_545436.html?lang=en
  52. Zhang, J. (2023). Tourism and rural income inequality: Empirical evidence for China. Current Issues in Tourism26(1), 153-170. DOI:1080/13683500.2021.2010674
  53. Zhang, Y., Li, W., Li, Z., Yang, M., Zhai, F., Li, Z., ... & Li, H. (2022). Spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors of key rural tourism villages in China. Sustainability14(21), 14064.‏ https://doi.org/10.3390/su142114064
  54. Zheng, T., Yu, J., Cheng, Q., & Pan, H. (2023). The Influence Mechanism and Measurement of Tourists’ Authenticity Perception on the Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism—A Study Based on the 10 Most Popular Rural Tourism Destinations in China. Sustainability15(2), 1454. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15021454