The Impact of Rural Information and Communication Technology on Indicators of Development of Creative Villages in Iran (Case Study: Mashhad Suburban Settlements)

Document Type : Original Article


1 Shahid Beheshti University, Iran

2 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran


Purpose- The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has an effect on development of Creative Villages as a new approach in using the existing rural capabilities and capacities to revive the rural areas. This study seeks to analyze the impact of RICT on the indicators of development of Creative Villages in suburban settlements in Mashhad County.
Design/methodology/approach- A descriptive-analytical research method was employed in this fundamental study, and documentary and survey methods have been used for collecting the data. The study population included households in 8 villages around Mashhad (N = 20813). These villages had a rural ICT office and a population of over 1,000 households. The sample was estimated using Cochran's formula; accordingly, 194 households were selected by systematic random sampling.
Finding- Spatial analysis of the main variables was performed using Combined Compromise Solution and fuzzy gray analysis. The result showed that the villages of Gorji Sofla, Hosseinabad Gharghi, Dostabad and Dehroud have the highest, and the villages of Kal Zarkash and Chahar Borj have the lowest level of use of RICT services and the indicator of the Creative Village. Using the partial least squares (PLS) technique, among the research indicators, "promoting and training" with the coefficient of 0.591 had the most direct effect on the dependent variable. Also, variable dimension of "awareness of RICT services", considering the direct and indirect effects, with a coefficient of 0.816, has had a greater impact on the indicators of development of Creative Villages in rural settlements. Given the value of R2 (0.998), we concluded that RICT has a high-level impact on the indicators of development of Creative Villages.


Main Subjects

  1. Akbari, M., Sabori, M., Hampanejad, E. (2016). A comparative study of information and communication technology Indicators (Case study: Fars province). Spatial Planning, 6(3), 79-96. [In Persian] http://doi:10.22108/sppl.2016.21639
  2. Akca, H., Sayili, M., & Esengun, K. (2007). Challenge of rural people to reduce digital divide in the globalized world: Theory and practice. Government Information Quarterly24(2), 404-413.‏
  3. Alexandru, A., Ianculescu, M., Parvan, M., & Jitaru, E. (2007). ICT and its impact upon the globalization and accessibility of the education in the health domain. In Paper International Conference on Education and Educational Technology (Vol. 287, p. 291).‏ 1340fa2eb10c
  4. Amaro, S., & Duarte, P. (2016, May). Modelling formative second order constructs in PLS. In European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies(pp. 19-27). Academic Conferences International Limited.‏
  5. Anabestani, A., & Javanshiri, M. (2018). Application of fuzzy multivariate decision-making methods in regional, urban and rural planning. Tehran: Entekhab Publication. [In Persian]
  6. Anabestani, A., & Kharazmi, O. (2018). Challenges and opportunities facing rural settlements in the metropolitan periphery of Mashhad. Mashhad: Shahrara Publication. [In Persian]
  7. Anabestani, A., Vaziri, S. (2011). Investigation of Social, Economic, and Physical Effects of ICT on Rural Regions Development (Case Study: Gorgan County). Journal of Rural Research, 2(5), 187-213. [In Persian]
  8. Azizi, P., Lotfi, H., & Pishrov, H. (2009). Information and Communication Technology and its Impact on Iran's Rural Economy. Journal of Environmental Based Territorial Planning, 2(6), 33-63. [In Persian]
  9. Baeker, G., & Murray, G. (2008). Creative City Planning Framework: A Supporting Document to the Agenda for Prosperity: Prospectus for a Great City. Toronto, ON: AuthentiCity.‏
  10. Barghi, H., & Ghanbari, Y. (2010). An analysis of the role of information and communication science and technology in rural development. Journal of Yas Strategy, 24, 135-145. [In Persian]
  11. Batjargal, B. (2007). Internet entrepreneurship: social capital, human capital, and performance of internet ventures in China. Research Policy, 36, 605–607.
  12. Bell, D., & Jayne, M. (2010). The creative countryside: Policy and practice in the UK rural cultural economy. Journal of Rural Studies26(3), 209-218.‏
  13. Borhani, O., & Mirzaie Fashalami, K. (2015). Theoretical approach to sustainable rural development based on information and communication technology (ICT). International Conference on Management and Humanities, UAE-Dubai, Vira Capital Institute of Managers. [In Persian]
  14. Brüntrup, M., & Messner, D. (2007). Global Trends and the Future of Rural Areas. Agriculture & Rural Development, 1, 2007.
  15. Can, D., & Ngo, V. (2017). Building “Creative Tourism” In Duong Lam Ancient Village. International Journal of Management and Applied Science, 3, 79-83.
  16. Chen, H. (2006). Digital government: technologies and practices. Deciion Support Systems, 7(34), 224-226.
  17. Citarella, G., & Maglio, M. (2014). A Systems Approach to Local Territory as a Driver for Creative Tourism Development on the Amalfi Coast. Almatourism-Journal of Tourism, Culture and Territorial Development, 5(1), 57-80.
  18. Dissart, J. C., & Marcouiller, D. W. (2012). Rural tourism production and the experience-scape. Tourism Analysis17(6), 691-704.‏
  19. Doncean, M. (2013). The creative-inventive use of colors in rural tourism marketing strategy. Journal of Seria Agronomie, 56 (2), 213-216.
  20. Dos Santos-Duisenberg, E., & Laurencin, E. (2006). Capturing the creative economy in developing countries. UNCTAD, Ginebra.
  21. Einali, J., Mohammadi Yeganeh, B., & Ghasemlou, H. (2019). The Role of Creative Tourism in Sustainable Development of Rural Areas (Case Study: Historic-Cultural Villages in North-West of Iran). Journal of Research and Rural Planning8(2), 19-39.
  22. Estelaji, A.R., & Jafari, M. (2014). The role of natural factors in the spatial arrangement of rural settlements in Mahneshan county. Journal of Geography & Environmental Studies, 3(10), 29-40. [In Persian]
  23. European (2011). The future of rural development policy. Retrieved from
  24. Falch, M., & Anyimadu, A. (2003). Tele-centres as a way of achieving universal access—the case of Ghana. Telecommunications Policy27(1-2), 21-39.‏
  25. Fathi, S., & Motlagh, M. (2010). Theoretical approach to sustainable rural development based on information and communication technology (ICT). Journal of New Approach in Human Geography, 2(2), 47-66. [In Persian]
  26. George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference (4th). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
  27. Ghazavi, Gh., & Vali, A. (2003). Investigating the role of information and communication technology in social development and education of villagers to protect natural resources. Conference on the application of information and communication technology in rural areas, University of Science and Technology, Electronics Research Institute. [In Persian]
  28. Hollifield, C. A., & Donnermeyer, J. F. (2008). Creating demand: influencing information technology diffusion in rural communities. Government Information Quarterly, 20(2), 135-150.‏
  29. Hulland, J. (1999). Use of partial least squares (PLS) in strategic management research: A review of four recent studies. Strategic Management Journal, 20(2), 195-204.
  30. Jarábková, J., & Hamada, M. (2012). Creativity and rural tourism. Creative and Knowledge Society, 2(2), 5-15. http://DOI:10.2478/v10212-011-0022-4
  31. Kalami, M., & Hosieni, S. SH. (2017). Creative village, a new approach in using the existing capabilities and capacities of the village to revive it (Case study: Khoien village). The first conference of new ideas and technologies in geographical sciences, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran. [In Persian]
  32. Kamarudin, K. H., Untari, R., & Ngah, I. (2018). Development of Creative Village and Rural Entrepreneurship in Malaysia and Indonesia: An Exploratory Study. Rural Research & Planning Group International Conference 2018, At Denpasar, Bali.
  33. Khajeh Shahkouhi, A. R. (2013). Evaluation and Analysis of Information and Communication Technology Role in Villagers' life Quality Case Study: Gharnabad & Esfahankalate Villages in Gorgan County. Geographical Planning of Space Journal, 3(7), 103-120. [In Persian]
  34. Khaleefa, O. H., Erdos, G., & Ashria, I. H. (1996). Creativity, culture and education. High Ability Studies, 7(2), 157-167.‏
  35. Kuhmonen, T., & Kuhmonen, I. (2015). Rural futures in developed economies: The case of Finland. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 101, 366-374.‏
  36. Landry, C., & Bianchini, F. (1995). The creative city Demos. Comedia, London.‏
  37. Lee, A., & Wall, G. (2012). Food clusters: Towards a creative rural economy. Martin Prosperity Institute, Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto.
  38. Maleki, S., Moradi Mofrad, S., & Hosienzadeh, A. (2015). Prioritization of creative city indicators using ANP network analytical model. Case study of urban areas 1 and 4 of Zanjan city. Journal of Sustainable City, 2(1), 78-98. [In Persian]
  39. Mcgranahan, D. A., & Wojan, T.R., (2007). Recasting the Creative Class to Examine Growth Processes in Rural and Urban Counties. Stud, 41 (2),197- 216.
  40. Mcgranahan, D.A., Wojan, T.R., & Lambert, D.M. (2011). The Rural Growth Trifecta: Outdoor Amenities, Creative Class and Entrepreneurial Context. Econ. Geogr, 1, 529- 557.
  41. Mitchell, C. J. (2013). Creative destruction or creative enhancement? Understanding the transformation of rural spaces. Journal of rural studies, 32, 375-387.‏
  42. Mitchell, C. J., & De Waal, S. B. (2009). Revisiting the model of creative destruction: St. Jacobs, Ontario, a decade later. Journal of Rural Studies25(1), 156-167.‏
  43. Mohammadi, K., & Majidfar, M. (2010). Notes on Creative City. Municipalities Monthly, 11(10), 1-6. [In Persian]
  44. Mohammadi, S., & Pirkhazraieain, S. L. (2012). Investigating the effects of ICT on rural development with emphasis on rural society in Iran. National Conference of Rural Development, Guilan University, Rasht, Iran. [In Persian]
  45. Molaei Hashjin, N., Amiri, M., & Mohammadi, M. (2013). The Role of the Offices of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the Rural Sustainable Development of Meshkinshahr County. Human Geography Research, 44(4), 147-168. [In Persian] http://doi:10.22059/jhgr.2013.29389
  46. Motiee Langroudi, S. H., Rezvani, M. R., Taraji Sabokbar, H. & Nemati, M. (2010). Analysis of social and economic effects of rural information and communication technology (Case study: Central District of Gorgan County). Journal of Geography, 8(26), 33-59. [In Persian]
  47. Pinto-Correia, T., Gustavsson, R., & Pirnat, J. (2006). Bridging the gap between centrally defined policies and local decisions–Towards more sensitive and creative rural landscape management. Landscape Ecology, 21(3), 333-346.‏
  48. Rao, T. R. (2004). ICT and e-Governance for Rural Development. Center for Electronic Governance, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, 28, 312-315.‏
  49. Rastghalam, M., Seydaei, S., Nouri, H. (2016). Determination of the Key Drivers of Creative Village Approach by Using MicMac Software. Journal of Rural Research, 7(2), 316-329. [In Persian]
  50. Rezaiee, R. (2006). ICT, sustainable rural development tool. Journal of Geographical Studies, 1(1), 103-124. [In Persian]
  51. Riyahivafa, A., & Hedayati, M. R. (2006). Ranking and prioritization of villages in Tehran province to convert rural post offices into information and communication technology offices with the aim of rural development and using numerical taxonomic classification method. Journal of Rural & Development, 9(4), 1-36. [In Persian]
  52. Robinson, K. (2001). All our futures: Creativity, culture and education. Sudbury: DfEE.‏
  53. Rostami Qobadi, F., Aliabadi, V., & Papzan, A. H. (2014). Effects of Rural ICT's Services on Rural Social Capital Components (Case Study: Godin village, Kangavar county). Journal of Rural Development Strategies, 1(1), 85-100. [In Persian]
  54. Sarami, H., & Bahari, I. (2010). The role of ICT in rural development. Journal of Social Sciences, 4(9), 12-154. [In Persian]
  55. Shakeel, H. (2000). Barriers to Telecenter Implementations in Sub–Saharan Africa. submitted as the term paper to Professor Deborah Hurley, Technology and Policy Program, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, May.‏
  56. Sourani, F., Kalantari, Kh., ASadi, A., Rostami, F., Babajani, A. & Ebrahimi, M. S. (2014). Analysis of Driving and Hindering Factors of ICT Development in Villages of Central Part of Najafabad County. Journal of Rural Development Strategies, 1(3), 125-140. [In Persian]
  57. ouzangar, A. (2003). Necessary solutions for the introduction and development of ICT in villages and familiarity with Internet bus research. Conference on the application of information and communication technology in rural areas, University of Science and Technology, Electronics Research Institute. [In Persian]
  58. Stolarick, K. M., Denstedt, M., Donald, B., & Spencer, G. M. (2011). Creativity, tourism and economic development in a rural context: The case of Prince Edward County. Journal of Rural and Community Development, 5(1), 1-21.‏
  59. Suzuki, A., & Chamala, SH. (1998). Role of Teleceneters in Rural Development in Australia: Agriaculture Information Technology in Asia and Oceania: The Asan Federation for Information Technology in Agriculture, Queenslind, Australia, Available online in
  60. Vinzi, V. E., Trinchera, L., & Amato, S. (2010). PLS path modeling: from foundations to recent developments and open issues for model assessment and improvement. In Handbook of partial least squares (pp. 47-82). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
  61. Yazdani, M., Zarate, P., Zavadskas, E. K., & Turskis, Z. (2019). A Combined Compromise Solution (CoCoSo) method for multi-criteria decision-making problems. Management Decision.‏
  62. Zarrabi, A., saberi, H., Mohammadi, J., Varesi, H. (2011). Spatial Analysis of Smart Growth Indicators (The Case Study: Regions of Isfahan). Human Geography Research, 43(77), 1-18. [In Persian]
  63. Zarrabi, A., Mousavi, M. N., & Bagheri Kashkooli, A. (2015). A Comparison between Indicators of Sustainable Urban Development and Criteria of a Creative City (Case Study: Cities of Yazd Province). Journal of Geography and Urban Space Development, 1(2), 1-17. [In Persian]
  64. Wojan, T. R., & Nichols, B. (2018). Design, innovation, and rural creative places: Are the arts the cherry on top, or the secret sauce?. PloS one13(2), e0192962.‏
  65. Noack, A., & Federwisch, T. (2020). Social innovation in rural regions: Older adults and creative community development. Rural Sociology85(4), 1021-1044.‏