Spatial Analysis of Tourism Development Potential of Tourism Destination Villages (Case Study: Mashhad Tourism Sphere of Influence)

Document Type : Original Article


Ferdowsi University of Mashhad


Purpose- Today, tourism is mentioned as a suitable approach for socio-economic and physical development in rural areas. Therefore, rural areas have capabilities and potentials in terms of tourist attractions; however, not all areas have the same capabilities for development. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological potential of the study area and to find the relationship and alignment between tourism capacity and ecological potential in rural areas of Mashhad tourism sphere of influence.
Design/methodology/approach- The present theoretical study was conducted with applied purposes using the descriptive-analytical method. GIS and SPSS software and CoCoSo multi-criteria decision-making model were used to analyze the data.
Findings- According to research findings the most influential indicator was the distance to tourism water resources and the least influential indicator was the distance to fault. Therefore, the highest ecological potential belongs to the foothill villages of the study area. Also, in terms of tourism capacity, the most effective factors have been the natural attractions of the village and its suburbs and the quality of village road.
Original/value- On this basis, the highest tourism potentials belong to villages of Pivehzhan, Virani, and Radkan, respectively. According to the results of the study there is a significant positive relationship between ecological potential of the studied villages and their tourism capacity and there is no relationship between the number of tourists and ecological potential of the studied villages.


  1. Akbar Fazeli, S., Mohammady Samani, K., & Pyrbauqar, M. (2014). Zoning areas for tourism development Nature Case study: Forests around Garan-Maryvan Dam. Journal of Sustainable Forest Development, 1(4), 365-381. [In Persian]
  2. Aliani, H., Babaei Kafaki, S., Saffari, A., & Munvari, S.M. (2016). Land Capability Assessment for Identifying Suitable Areas of Tourism Development Using ANP Network Analysis Process. Remote Sensing and GIS in Natural Resources, 7(4), 1-17. [In Persian]
  3. Aref, F., & Redzuan, M. R. B. (2009). Community capacity building for tourism development. Journal of human ecology, 27(1), 21-25 DIO: 5539/jsd.v3n1p81
  4. Betuit, M. (2015). The role of environmental capabilities in rural tourism development Case study of Firoozkooh city. MSc Thesis, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran, Tehran. [In Persian]
  5. Bozrajmehri, Kh., & Mudoudi Arjadi, M. (2015). Comparative Evaluation of Different Tourism Capabilities in Target Villages of Golestan Province, Journal of Human Habitat Planning Studies, 10(31), 1-13. [In Persian]
  6. Canoves, K., Priestley, G., & Blanco, A. (2004). Rural tourism in Spain: an analysis of recent evolution. Geoforum, 35(6), 755-769. DIO:‎10.1016/j.geoforum.2004.03.005
  7. Chehr-Ezar, F., Nahavandchi, M., Ballist, Ja., & Amiri, M.J. (2018). Study and evaluation of tourism capability using fuzzy logic in the environment GIS Case study: Hamadan city. Environmental Science Studies, 3(1), 659-672. [In Persian]
  8. Chi, Y., Zhang, Z., Wang, J., Xie, Z., & Gao, J. (2020). Island protected area zoning based on ecological importance and tenacity. Ecological Indicators, 112, 1-17. DIO:‎1016/j.ecolind.2020.106139
  9. Cupples, J. (2005). What is community capacity building? From (Retrieved March 4, 2008).
  10. Dwyer, L., Edwards, D., Mistilis, N., Roman C., & Scott N. (2009). Destination and enterprise management for a tourism future. Tourism Management, 30 (2), 63–74. DIO:‎1016/j.tourman.2008.04.002
  11. Ebrahimi, F. (2019). Tourism Capability Survey in Chahar Mahal Bakhtiari Province. Journal of Tourism Research and Sustainable Development, 2(1), 41-46. [In Persian]
  12. Firoozi, MA., Goudarzi, M., Zarei, R., & Akbari, A. (2013). Evaluation of Ecological Power of The Exemplary Tourism Area of Shaheed Abbaspour Dam with emphasis on Sustainable Tourism Development. Journal of Applied Research in Geographical Sciences, 13(28), 153-176. [In Persian]
  13. Fozoni, B., Istajami, A., & Vali Shariatpanahi, M. (2017). The role of environmental capabilities in sustainable development with emphasis on tourism using ahp Case study: Deylaman district of Siahkal. Journal of Geography (Regional Planning), 7(2), 231-245. [In Persian]
  14. Fu, Y., Xueyi Shi, X., He, J., Yuan, Y., & Qu, L. (2020). Identification and optimization strategy of county ecological security pattern: A case study in the Loess Plateau, China. Ecological Indicators, 112, 1–100. DIO:‎1016/j.ecolind.2019.106030
  15. Ghadiri Masoom, M., Salmani, M., & Ghasabi, M.J. (2013). Eryabi tavan desert tourism development and its impact on socio-economic and physical dimensions in rural settlements Case study of villages of Khor and Biabanak. Journal of Geography and Planning, 18(50), 281-304. [In Persian].
  16. Ghaffari, R., & Mousa Rezaei, M. (2013). Ecological Power Measurement and Tourism Industry Development Planning in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province. Journal of Geography and Environmental Studies, 2(8), 79-98. [In Persian]
  17. Habibi, K., Tekyehkhah, J. & Azad Ahmadi, M. (2012). Ecotourism Capability Assessment and Sustainable Tourism Development Planning Case Study: Abydar Forest Park. Journal of Urban Studies, 3(3) 13-23. [In Persian]
  18. Hashemi, S.M., Karimi Pashaky, S. & Khalifak, E. (2019). Priority of Tourism Development Capability in Desert and Desert Regions Case Study: Kerman Province. Journal of Urban Tourism, 6(2), 79-98. [In Persian] DIO: 10.30495/jzpm.2021.4596
  19. Hessel, R. J., den Berg, J., Kabore, O., van Kekem, A., Verzandvoort, S., Dipama, J.M., Diallo, B. (2009), Linking Participatory and GIS-based Land Use Planning Methods: A Case Study from Burkina Faso. Land Use Policy, 26(4), pp. 1162-1172. DIO:‎1016/j.landusepol.2009.02.008
  20. Kieffer, C., & Reischmann, J. (2004). Contributions of Community Building to Achieving Improved Public Health Outcomes. Final report, August 2004.
  21. Kumari, S., Behera, M.D., & Tewari, H.R. (2010). Identification of potential ecotourism sites in West District, Sikkim using geospatial tools. Tropical Ecology, 51(1), pp. 75-85.  
  22. Kurniawana, F., Adriantoa, L., Bengenc, D.G., & Prasetyo, L.B. (2019). The social-ecological status of small islands: An evaluation of island tourism destination management in Indonesia. Tourism Management Perspectives, 31, 136-144. DIO:‎1016/j.tmp.2019.04.004
  23. Lacitignola, D., Petrosillo, I., Cataldi, M. & Zurlini, G. (2007). Modelling socio-ecological tourism-based systems for sustainability. Ecological Economics, 206, 191-204. DIO:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2007.03.034
  24. Lee, T.H., & Liu, R.T. (2011). Strategy formulation for the recreational areas of Central Taiwan: An application of SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threat) analysis. Journal of Hospitality Management and Tourism. 2(3), 38-47. 824.2145&rep=rep1&type=pdf
  25. Lin, W., Ying Li, Y., Xiande Li, X., & Dan Xu, D. (2018). The dynamic analysis and evaluation on tourist ecological footprint of city: Take Shanghai as an instance. Sustainable Cities and Society, 37, 541-549. DIO:10.1016/j.scs.2017.12.003
  26. Marrocu, E., & Paci, R. (2013). Different tourists to different destinations. Evidence from spatial interaction models. Tourism Management, (39), 71-83. DIO:10.1016/j.tourman.2012.10.009
  27. Martins, L.F, Gan, Y., & Ferreira-L. (2017). An empirical analysis of the influence of macroeconomic determinants on World tourism demand. Tourism Management, (61), 248-260. DIO:10.1016/ j. tourman. 2017.01.008
  28. Moradi, F.(2014). Evaluation of Tourism Capabilities of Takab City in Order to Provide Development Strategies Using SWOT Model. MSc Thesis, Payame Noor University, South Tehran, Tehran, [In Persian]. DIO: 10.22059/jut.2019.234974.334
  29. Olafsdottir, R., & Runnstrom, M. (2009). A GIS Approach to Evaluating Ecological Sensitivity for Tourism Development in Fragile Environments. A Case Study from SE Iceland. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 9(1), 22-38. DIO:10.1080/15022250902761504
  30. Patterson, T.M., Niccolucci, V., & Bastianoni, S. (2007). Beyond “more is better”: Ecological footprint accounting for tourism and consumption in Val di Merse, Italy. Ecological Economics, 62, 747-756. DIO:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2006.09.016
  31. Patterson, T.M., Niccolucci, V., & Marchettini, N. (2008). Adaptive environmental management of tourism in the Province of Siena, Italy using the ecological footprint. Journal of Environmental Management, 86, 407–418. DIO: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.04.017
  32. Petrosillo, I., Zurlini, G., Grato, E., & Zaccarelli, N. (2006). Indicating fragility of socio-ecological tourism-based systems. Ecological Indicators, 6, 104–113. DIO: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2005.08.008
  33. Qiao, L. (2008) A model for suitability evaluation of tourism development for the suburban mining wasteland and its empirical research, Ecological Economy 4: 338- 345.
  34. Raik, B. (2002). Capacity Building for Co-management of Wildlife in North America. From
  35. Roknoddin Eftekhari, A., & Badri, S.A. (2012). Theorized Foundations of Rural Development Model, Sample, Tehran. Noor-ol-Alam Publications, [In Persian].
  36. Rosentraub S., & Joo M. (2009). Tourism and economic development: Which investments produce gains for regions?. Tourism Management, 30(2), 759–770.   
  37. Rostampour, S. (2014). Development of a Risky Planning Model for Evaluating The Ability to Develop Settlement and Tourism in The West of Golestan Province. Sc. Thesis, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Gorgan. [In Persian]
  38. Ryu, K., Roy. P.A., Kim. H.L., & Ryu, H. (2020). The resident participation in endogenous rural tourism projects: a case study of Kumbalangi in Kerala. India.
  39. Saeb, N. (2017). Ecological Abilities Assessment for Tourism Development using GIS (Case Study: Sarein City). MSc Thesis, Mohaqegh Ardabili University, Ardabil. [In Persian]
  40. Saghaei, M. (2009). Spatial text of tourism in villages around metropolises (Case study: Mashhad metropolis). Ph.D. thesis on geography and rural planning, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad. [In Persian]
  41. Shirafkan Lamsso, M., & Masoomzadeh, S. (2017). Study of impact of exchange rate on tourism balance of payment in countries with top tourist attractions (Vector Error Correction Approach). International Journal of Tourism & Hospitality Reviews, 4 (1), 10-20.
  42. Sokhanvara, A., Çiftçioglua, S., & Javid, E. (2018). Another look at tourism- economic development nexus. Tourism Management Perspectives, 26, 97-106.
  43. Soltani, Z., & Nouri, S.H (2010). Environmental Power Assessment of Khansar City for Tourism Development Using Gis, Geographical Research Quarterly, 99, 77-100. [In Persian] journal/View Paper.aspx?id=139808‎
  44. Tohidy, F. (2011). Economic Impact of Tourism Industry. International Journal of Business and Management. 6(8), 206- 215.
  45. Wu, C.C., & Tsai, H.M. (2016). Capacity building for tourism development in a nested social-ecological system A case study of the South Penghu Archipelago Marine National Park. Taiwan, Ocean & Coastal Management, 123, 66-73.
  46. Yaakup, A., Che’ Man, N., Hosni, N., Haron, H.W., & Sulaiman, S. (2006). A GIS Approach in Evaluation of Metropolitan Green Area: A Case of Sungai Pulai Wetland. Urban Forestry Conference: Managing Urban Green For Sustainable Cities, Kuala Lumpur, 6-7 June, 2006.
  47. Yazdani, M., Zarate, P., Zavadskas, E.K., & Turskis, Z. (2018). A combined compromise solution (CoCoSo) method for multi-criteria decision-making problems. Management Decision,
  48. Yuxi, Z., & Linsheng, Z. (2020). Identifying conflicts tendency between nature-based tourism development and ecological protection in China. Ecological Indicators, 109, 1-13. j.ecolind.2019.105791
  • Receive Date: 26 September 2021
  • Revise Date: 04 November 2021
  • Accept Date: 10 February 2022
  • First Publish Date: 10 February 2022