Factors affecting the Sustainability of Rural Businesses Launched by Women Who Are Members of Microcredit Funds in Mazandaran Province

Document Type : Original Article


1 Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University

2 Natural Resources and Watershed Management of Golestan Province


Purpose- Women as half of the human resources in rural areas play an important role in entrepreneurship development in rural communities. The reinforcement of rural women entrepreneurship is an effective approach for two development indices, that is., increasing employment and reducing unemployment. So, given the significance of the sustainability of small and medium-sized businesses of women in the rural economy and rural development, it is important to identify the factors influencing the sustainability of the entrepreneurship process among them. In this respect, this study aimed to explore the factors affecting the sustainability of the business of the entrepreneur women who were members of rural microcredit funds in Mazandaran province.
Design/Methodology/Approach- The research was a descriptive one. The statistical population was composed of 776 entrepreneur women who were members of 26 rural microcredit funds in Mazandaran province, out of whom 260 women were sampled based on Krejcie and Morgan’s table. The main research instrument was a self-constructed questionnaire whose face and content validity were confirmed by a panel of experts. Also, average variance extracted (AVE) and composite reliability (CR) supported the convergent validity and the reliability of the instrument, respectively. Data were analyzed by structural equation modeling using the partial least squares technique in the Smart PLS3 software package.
Finding- Based on the results, the sustainable businesses of rural women who are members of rural microcredit funds were positively and significantly affected by the infrastructure, educational-skill, policymaking, economic, and environmental-geographical factors (with coefficients of 0.412, 0.219, 0.175, 0.165, and 0.137, respectively) at the 99% confidence level and by personality and attitude (0.183 and 0.162, respectively) at the 95% confidence level. These factors captured 92.3 percent of the variance in sustainable businesses.
Research Limitations- The dispersion of microcredit funds across the counties and the difficulty of identifying entrepreneurs in them, which would constitute the statistical population, were the main limitations and challenges of the research.
Practical Implication: The most important approaches to developing sustainable businesses among rural women include identifying motivated entrepreneur women, providing adequate facilities, raw materials, and inputs, creating job opportunities for small home jobs in villages to motivate women businesses, promoting communication between rural women and successful entrepreneurs, arranging visits of successful businesses, holding short-term applied skill development courses, and creating proper conditions for the use of the Internet and cyberspace for marketing their products.
Originality/Value- Based on the results, various factors significantly influence sustainable businesses of women who are members of rural microcredit funds. Therefore, organizations and officials can contribute to the development of women’s businesses in rural areas through supporting the women by material and spiritual motivations, encouraging them, and reinforcing their commitment and responsibility.


  1. Abasi, H. (2017). Designing the model for commercialization of university research using structural equation modeling- partial least squares method (SEM-PLS). Iranian Journal of Trade Studies (IJTC) Quarterly, 21(82), 1-21. [In Persian]. http://pajooheshnameh.itsr.ir/article_23754.html?lang=en
  2. Afrakhteh, H., Eskandari Sani, M., & Esmaeelnejad, M. (2009). The Role of Carpet Weaving in Iran's Rural Development: A Case Study of Balavelayat Subdistrict in Kashmar County. Village and Development, 12(1), 1-28. [In Persian]. http://rvt.agri-peri.ac.ir/article_59240.html
  3. Agahi, H., Mirakzadeh, A., & Taghi Beigi, M. (2012). Prioritization of effective factors in the development of household jobs in West Islamabad. Quarterly Journal of Woman & Society, 3(11), 181-202. [In Persian]. http://jzvj.miau.ac.ir/article_1172.html?lang=en
  4. Ahmadpour, A., Abdi Tarkami, M., & Soltani, (2014). Factors Affecting the Rural Women Micro Credit Program Success in Ghaem-shahr. Co-Operation and Agriculture, 3(12), 23-45. [In Persian]. http://ajcoop.mcls.gov.ir/article_8806.html?lang=en
  5. Akter, A., Ahmad, N., Jaafar, W.M.W., Zawawi, D.B., Islam, M., & Islam, M.A. (2018). Empowerment of women through entrepreneurial activities of self-help groups in Bangladesh. Journal of International Business and Management, 1(1), 1-15. https://rpajournals.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/JIBM-2018-44-Volume-1-Issue-1.pdf
  6. Amani, J., Khezri Azar, H., & Hojjat, M. (2012). Introduction of structural equatiomodeling by PLS-PM method and its application in behavioral research. Journal of Psychological Knowledge, 1(1), 41-55. [In Persian]. https://www.noormags.ir/view/fa/articlepage/54717/41/text
  7. Amini, A., & Taheri, A.H. (2017). An analysis on the role-playing of rural women’s economical activities and its determinants: the case of Simakan rural district in Jahrom county. Iraninan Agricultural Extension and Education Journal, 12(2), 37-51. [In Persian]. http:// www.iaeej.ir/ article_ 44283.html?lang=en
  8. Anderson, E. (2006). New fundamental in planning for lokal economic development: entrepreneurial communities. Georgia Institute of Technology City and Region Local Economic Development, New York: Free Press.
  9. Arasti, Z., Maleki, M., Valinejad, M., & Mobaraki, M. (2013). Women entrepreneurs' start-up motivations and its influence on business growth. Quarterly Journal of Women,s Studies Sociological and Psychological, 11(1), 71-92. [In Persian]. https://jwsps.alzahra.ac.ir/article_1460.html?lang=en
  10. Babai, M., Niknami, M., & Samari, D. (2013). Entrepreneurial characteristics of rural women in cooperatives Semnan. Co-ooeration and Agriculture, 2(5), 69-86. [In Persian]. http:// ajcoop. mcls.gov.ir/article_8839.html?lang=en
  11. Bamiatzi, V.C., & Kirchmaier, T. (2014). Strategies for superior performance under adverse conditions: a focus on small and medium-sized high-growth firms. International Small Business Journal, 32(3), 259-284. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242612459534
  12. Barghi, H., & Zolfaghari, A.A. (2018). Explaining status of entrepreneurship indicators and predicting them in rural residences (rase study: Ravansar township). GeoRes, 33(1), 209-223. [In Persian]. http://georesearch.ir/article-1-23-en.html
  13. Brush, C.G., & Cooper, S.Y. (2012). Female entrepreneurship and economic development: an international perspective. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 24(1-2), 1-6. https:// doi.org/ 10.1080/08985626.2012.637340
  14. Brush, C.G., Edelman, L.F., Manolova, T., & Welter, F. (2019). A gendered look at entrepreneurship ecosystems. Small Business Economics, 53, 393-408. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11187-018-9992-9
  15. Chatterjee, R., Mukherjee, D., Chakraborty, G., & Deb, A.K. (2017). Factors influencing growth of rural entrepreneurship in tripura: a socio-economic perspective. The Journal of Innovations, 1, 47-57. https://doi.org/10.18701/imsmanthan.v12i01.10335
  16. Davari, A., & Rezazadeh, A. (2013). Structural equation modeling with PLS software. Jihad Daneshgahi Publications. [In Persian].
  17. Davidson, P., Achtenhagen, L., & Naldi, L. (2010). Small firm growth. Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship, 6(2), 69-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/0300000029
  18. Deo, M., Kalisa, F., & Theogene, H. (2016). The contribution of women entrepreneurship in family socio-economic development in rural areas, Rwanda. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 7(6), 256-259. http://www. ijimt.org/ index.php? m=content&c= index&a= show&catid= 77&id=1019
  19. Eddleston, K., & Powell, G. (2008). The role of gender identity in explaining sex differences in business owners career satisfier preferences. Journal of Business Venturing, 23(2), 244-256. https:// doi.org/ 10.1016/j.jbusvent.2006.11.002
  20. Farajzadeh, M. (2010). The role of handicrafts in women's empowerment. Journal of Happiness and Success, 76, 68-54. [In Persian]. http://ensani.ir/fa/article/200267
  21. Farshadmehr, F. (2003). Employment status of rural women: women, silent breadwinners of the village. Journal Art Bride, 22, 14-17. [In Persian]. https://www.noormags.ir/view/fa/articlepage/179952
  22. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D.F. (1981). Evaluating structural equations models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 8(1), 39-50. https:// doi.org/ 10.1177/ 00222437 8101800104
  23. Gefen, D., & Straub, D.W. (2005). A practical guide to factorial validity using PLS-Graph: tutorial and annotated example. Communications of the AIS, 16(5), 91-109. https://doi.org/10.17705/1CAIS.01605
  24. Gibson, J., & Olivia, S. (2010). The effect of infrastructure access and quality on non-farm enterprises in rural Indonesia. World Development, 38(5), 717-726. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.11.010
  25. Gómez-Araujo, E., & Bayon, M.C. (2017). Socio-cultural factors and youth entrepreneurship in rural regions. Review of Business Management, São Paulo, 19(64), 200-218. https:// doi.org/ 10.7819/ rbgn.v0i0.2695
  26. Harrison, R.T., & Mason, C.M. (2007). Does gender matter? Women business angels and the supply of entrepreneurial finance. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(3), 445-472. https://doi.org/ 10.1111/ j.1540-6520.2007.00182.x
  27. Heidari Sareban, V. (2012). Prioritizing major barriers to rural women's entrepreneurship, using AHP method (Case study: Ardabil province). Quarterly Journal of Women,s Studies Sociological and Psychological, 10(2), 159-177. [In Persian]. https://jwsps.alzahra.ac.ir/article_1430.html
  28. Hoque, M.E., Long, K.Z., Niessen, L.W., & Mamun, A.A. (2015). Rapid shift toward overweight from double burden of underweight and overweight among Bangladeshi women: a systematic review and pooled analysis. Nutrition reviews, 73(7), 438-447. https://doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuv003
  29. Hosseininia, G., Yaghoubi Farani, A., & Seyedin, R. (2015). Measuring factors affecting Female entrepreneur's business performance in rural areas of Mianeh County. Women in Development and Politics, 12(4), 545-558. [In Persian]. https://jwdp.ut.ac.ir/article_54534.html?lang=en
  30. Huang, J.Q. (2018). Digital aspirations: ‘wrong-number’mobile-phone relationships and experimental ethics among women entrepreneurs in rural Bangladesh. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 24(1), 107-125. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9655.12754
  31. Islam, K., & Bahaurul, M. (2009). Rural entrepreneurship for women. Academy of Management.
  32. Islam, N., & Ahmed, R. (2014). Factors influencing the development of women entrepreneurship in Bangladesh. SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2851786
  33. Jamali, D. (2009). Constraints and opportunities facing women entrepreneurs in developing countries: a relational perspective. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 24(4), 232-251. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/23165.pdf
  34. Jegadeeswari, S., Sudarvel, J., & Velmurugan, R. (2020). Factors influencing sustainability of micro small medium enterprise entrepreneurs.‏ International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 9(2), 5501-5503. http://www.ijstr.org/final-print/feb2020/Factors-Influencing-Sustainability-Of-Micro-Small-Medium-Enterprise-Entrepreneurs.pdf
  35. Jyoti, J., Sharma, J., & Kumari, A. (2012). Factors affecting orientation and satisfaction of women entrepreneurs in rural India. Annals of Innovation & Entrepreneurship, 2, 1-13. https:// doi.org/ 10.3402/aie.v2i1.7371
  36. Karpak, B., & Topcu, I. (2010). Small medium manufacturing enterprises in Turkey: an analytic network process frame work for prioritizing factors affecting success. International Journal Production Economics, 125, 60-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2010.01.001
  37. Kumbhar, V. (2013). Some critical issues of women entrepreneurship in rural India. European Academic Research, 1(2), 85-192. https:// citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/ viewdoc/ download? doi= 10.1. 1.1068 .2651&rep= rep1&type=pdf
  38. Lawal, J.O., Omonona, B.T., Ajani, O.I.Y., & Oni, O.A. (2009). Effects of social capital on credit access among cocoa farming households in Osun State, Nigeria. Agricultural Journal, 4(4), 184-191. http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/medwelljournals/aj/2009/184-191.pdf
  39. Lawatre, J. (2016). Women entrepreneurship and rural development. International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering & Research (IJRTER), 2(11), 238-242. https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20143127322
  40. Lin, H.C., & Lee, Y.D. (2017). A study of the influence of organizational learning on employees’ innovative behavior and work Engagement by a cross-level examination. Eurasia J. Math., Sci Tech., 13(7), 3463-3478. https://doi.org/10.12973/eurasia.2017.00738a
  41. Mafi, F. (2009). Economic empowerment of rural women through microcredit. Journal of Women and Development, 42(1), 157-168. [In Persian]. https://www.noormags.ir/view/fa/articlepage/905295
  42. Maghsoudi, T. (2017). Identifying factors affecting the sustainability of micro-businesses in the agricultural sector in Khuzestan province. Agricultural Extension and Education Research, 10(2), 11-20. [In Persian]. https://jaeer.srbiau.ac.ir/article_11137.html?lang=en
  43. Mansourabadi, A., & Karami, A. (2006). Consequences of development on economic, social and cultural conditions of rural women: a case study in Fars province. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, Shiraz University, 2(24), 107-128. [In Persian]. https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=67964
  44. Mardanshahi, M., & Nezamzadeh, S.E. (2018). Identification and Analysis of Factors Affecting the Rural Women's Entrepreneurial Capabilities: A Case Study of Women Entrepreneurs in Villages of Behshahr County of Iran. Village and Development, 21(2), 75-96. [In Persian]. http://rvt.agri-peri.ac.ir/article_77120.html?lang=en
  45. Mat, I.E.N., & Razak, R.C. (2011). Attributes, environment factors and women entrepreneurial activity: a literature review. Asian Social Science, 7(9), 124-130. http:// ccsenet.org/ journal/ index.php/ ass/article/view/12032/8467
  46. Mehtap, Caputo A., & Pellegrini M.M. (2016). Encouraging female entrepreneurship in Jordan: environmental factors, obstacles and challenges, in Ramadani V., Dana L.P., Gerguri-Rashiti S. & Ratten V., Entrepreneurship and Management in an Islamic Context. Springer, Cham. https:// doi.org/ 10.1007/ 978-3-319-39679-8_13
  47. Mirakzadeh, A.A., Aliabadi, V., & Shams, A. (2010). An examination of the barriers to Iranian women's participation in training and extension programs. Village and Development, 13(2), 147-165. [In Persian]. http://rvt.agri-peri.ac.ir/article_59203.html?lang=en
  48. Mishra, G., & Kiran, U.V. (2012). Rural women entrepreneurs: concerns & importance. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 3(9), 93-98. https:// www.ijsr.net/ archive/ v3i9/ U0VQMTQ 0MQ==.pdf
  49. Movahedi, R., & Soleymanian Broujeni, J. (2017). Surveying the education role on entrepreneurship development among rural women. Journal of Entrepreneurial Strategies in Agriculture, 3 (6), 24-33. [In Persian]. http://jea.sanru.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=143&sid=1&slc_lang=en
  50. Mozaffari, M., & Ziaee, M. (2017). Survey the effects of micro finance credits fund on the rural women’s managerial empowerment (case study: Alamout region). Journal of Investment Knowledge, 6(24), 231-250. [In Persian]. https://jik.srbiau.ac.ir/article_11362.html?lang=en
  51. Mutisya, C., & Kiai, W. (2016). Factors influencing adoption and use of mobile technology services by women entrepreneurs in Machakos County, Kenya. Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Science, 4(11), 129-140. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Factors-Influencing-Adoption-and-Use-of-Mobile-by-Mutisya-Kiai/41f6352fa63da4cdbb270d5a7abae0f0d33fdd9e
  52. Nasir, M., Iqbal, R., & Akhtar, C. (2019). Factors affecting growth of women entrepreneurs in Pakistan. Pakistan Administrative Review, 3(1), 35-50.‏ https://www.ssoar.info/ssoar/handle/document/62901
  53. Nyoni, T. (2017). An empirical investigation of factors affecting the performance of women entrepreneurs in Harare: a case of food vendors. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/87523/
  54. Okpukpara, B. (2009). Strategies for effective loan delivery to small scale enterprises in rural Nigeria. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics, 1(2), 41-48. https:// academicjournals. org/journal/ JDAE/article-abstract/ DC2EECE3643
  55. Omidi, S., & Chaharsooqi Amin, H. (2018). The role of small home businesses in reducing the poverty of rural households in Mehran. Quarterly Journal of Space Economy & Rural Development, 7(1), 167-182. [In Persian]. https://serd.khu.ac.ir/article-1-3038-fa.html
  56. Papzan, A., Khaledi, K., & Soliemani, A. (2011). An evaluation of handicrafts technical and vocational trainings of rural women. Quarterly Journal of women & Society, 2(7), 21-38. [In Persian]. http://jzvj.miau.ac.ir/article_1190.html?lang=en
  57. Parveen, K. (2014). Development of rural women entrepreneurs through workshop training. Reseach Journal of Management Sciences, 3(2), 15-18. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=
  58. Pharm, A., & Sritharan, R. (2013). Problems being faced by women entrepreneurs in rural areas. The International Journal of Engineering and Science (Ijes), 2(3), 52-55. http://www.theijes.com/papers/v2-i3/I023052055.pdf
  59. Poon, J.P.H., Thai, D.T., & Naybor, D. (2012). Social capital and female entrepreneurship in rural regions: evidence from Vietnam. Applied geography, 35(1-2), 308-315. https:// doi.org/ 10.1016/ j.apgeog. 2012.08.002
  60. Ramadani, V., Hisrich, R.D., & Gërguri-Rashiti, S. (2015). Female entrepreneurs in transition economies: insights from Albania, Macedonia and Kosovo. World Review of Entrepreneurship Management and Sustainable Development, 11(4), 391-413. https://doi.org/10.1504/wremsd.2015.072066
  61. Rattanawiboonsom, V., & Ali, M.M. (2016). Factors affecting entrepreneurial management in Bangladesh: an empirical analysis. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 14(3-3), 677-690. http://dx.doi.org/10.21511/ppm.14(3-3).2016.11
  62. Rijkers, B., & Costa, R. (2012). Gender and rural non-farm entrepreneurship. World development, 40(12), 2411-2426. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2012.05.017
  63. Roomi, M.A., & Parrot, G. (2008). Barriers to development and progression of women entrepreneurs in Pakistan. International Journal of Entrepreneurship, 17(1), 59-72. https:// doi.org/ 10.1177/ 097135570701700105
  64. Roy, S., Tripathy, P., & Tripathy, P.K. (2017). Assessment of factors affecting the performance of women entrepreneurs in MSE in polosara district of Ganjam, Odisha. British Journal of Economics, Management & Trade, 17(3), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJEMT/2017/32298
  65. Sadi, H., Jalilian, S., & Yaghoubi Farani, A. (2014). The influence of home based businesses on rural women's social empowerment. Quarterly Journal of Women & Society, 5(19), 85-107. [In Persian]. http://jzvj.miau.ac.ir/article_643.html?lang=fa
  66. Saharan, N. (2015). Women empowerment through micro finance: a boon for development. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, 2(5), 380-385. http:// www.allsubjectjournal .com/archives/ 2015/vol2/issue5/81
  67. Sandybayev, A. (2018). Women entrepreneurship in the UAE: factors of motivation and drive. International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 119(15), 2061-2069. https://acadpubl.eu/ hub/2018-119-15/ 4/615.pdf
  68. Sathiabama, K. (2010). Rural women empowerment and entrepreneurship development. Working Papers, id: 2475, eSocialSciences. https://ideas.repec.org/p/ess/wpaper/id2475.html
  69. Savari, M., Mokhlesabadi Farahani, M., & Mirakzadeh, A.A. (2014). Strategies to development of entrepreneurship at handicrafts cooperatives in Kurdistan province. Sciece & Research Quarterly Journal of Co-ooeration and Agriculture, 2(8), 125-148. [In Persian]. http://ajcoop.mcls.gov.ir/article_8834.html?lang=en
  70. Sayydeh, T., Eshraghi Samani, R., & Poursaeed, A. (2017). The role of occupational capability in the self-reliance of rural women in Ilam County. Journal of Rural Research, 8(2), 554-570. [In Persian]. https://jrur.ut.ac.ir/article_63475.html
  71. Sharafi, L., Rezaee, R., Mirakzadeh, A.A., & Karami Dehkordi, E. (2019). Designing the sustainability model of agricultural small and medium-size businesses in Kermanshah province. Agricultural Extension and Education Research, 12(2), 11-24. [In Persian]. https:// jaeer.srbiau.ac.ir/ article_14699.html?lang=en
  72. Sharifzadeh, M., & Karimi, J. (2016). An investigation of factors affecting textile weaving development among Baneh county rural women. Quarterly Journal of Women,s Studies Sociological and Psychological, 14(2), 127-156. [In Persian]. https://jwsps.alzahra.ac.ir/article_2490.html?lang=en
  73. Shaterian, M., Nasrabadi, Z., & Mansourian, Z. (2017). Analysis of rural women entrepreneurship barriers in Kashan. Quarterly Journal of Space Economy & Rural Development, 6(21), 181-196. [In Persian]. https://serd.khu.ac.ir/article-1-2904-fa.html
  74. Smallbone, D. (2009). Key Policy Issues in Entrepreneurship and SME Development, Fostering entrepreneurship in rural areas. https:// www.semanticscholar.org/ paper/ Key-Policy- Issues-in-Entrepreneurship -a nd-Sme-in-Smallbone/ad938324e26edb79d9a2ae9a8394d4ec5741f8cf
  75. Soroshmehr, H., Rafiee, H., Kalantari, K., & Shabanali Fami, H. (2011). Investigation of socioeconomic status of rural women and effective factors on its improvement (case study: Hamedan county). Journal of Rural Research, 1(1), 143-166. [In Persian]. https:// jrur.ut.ac.ir/ article_21829.html? lang=en
  76. Suryana, Y., Komaladewi, R., & Zusnita, W. (2017). The model of successful female entrepreneurs. Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research, 6(2), 197-204. https:// doi.org/ 10.1080/ 15475778.2019.1682769
  77. Tadesse, D. A. (2020). Factors affecting women entrepreneurs in establishing their own business: The case of Afar Region, Ethiopia. African Journal of Business Management, 14(3), 86-92. https:// doi.org/ 10.5897/ AJBM2019.8919
  78. Taghibaygi, M., Agahi, H., & Mirakzadeh, A.A. (2014). A study of barriers and suitable solution in development of rural household jobs from the perspective of rural women and expert in the city of West Islamabad. Journal of Rural Research, 5(2), 283-310. [In Persian]. https:// jrur.ut.ac.ir/ article_52472 .html?lang=en
  79. Vaghela, R. (2013). Hurdle in the way of rural entrepreneur. International Multidisciplinary Journals. 1, 1-12. https:// doi.org/10.34293/management.v7i1.456
  80. Verheul, I., Van Stel, A., & Thurik, R. (2006). Explaining female and male entrepreneurship at the country level. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 18, 151-183. https:// doi.org/ 10.1080/ 08985620500532053
  81. Wennekers, A.R.M., & Thurik, A.R. (1999). Linking entrepreneurship and economic growth. Small Business Economics, 13, 27-56. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008063200484
  82. Yaghoubi Farani, A., Soleymani, A., & Movahedi, R. (2015). Analysis of factors affecting rural women entrepreneurship. Quarterly Journal of Women,s Studies Sociological and Psychological, 12(4), 7-42. [In Persian]. https://jwsps.alzahra.ac.ir/article_1493.html?lang=fa
  83. Zare Ahmadabadi, H., & Arabshahi, S. (2011). Requirements for rural women entrepreneurship training (case: rural women of Yazd). Journal of Shiite Women, 6(26), 49-71. [In Persian]. https://www.magiran.com/paper/1079453
  84. Zarei Pahnecoulai, S., Ahmadpour, A., & Charmchian Langerodi, M. (2013). Factors Affecting Entrepreneurship Development in Women’s Rural Cooperatives in Mazandaran Province. Co-ooeration and Agriculture, 2(7), 79-100. [In Persian]. http://ajcoop.mcls.gov.ir/article_8825.html?lang=en