Process Model of Rural Planning Based on the Experiences of Community-based Development Projects (The 2020s Projects in the Critical Centers of Sistan, Rigan and Jazmourian)

Document Type : Scientific Articles


Sistan and Baluchestan University


Purpose- The implementation of participatory projects aiming socio-economic empowerment and environmental sustainability is one of the sustainable management strategies in arid rural areas across the world in the recent decades. This study was conducted to answer two questions: What have been the characteristics and achievements of participatory development and community-based projects in rural areas located within the critical centers of Sistan, Jazmourian, and Rigan? How is a process model for rural development planning consistent with the geography of aforementioned areas?
Design/methodology/approach- The present study is descriptive-analytical and the research process includes the analysis of the goals and final achievements of participatory plans in Rigan (RFLDL), the progress and development Plan in Ghaleh-Ganj, the Carbon Sequestration plan in Jazmourian and Lashar, the Menarid Project in Sistan, "Village without unemployed" project, SAHAB community-based projects, and ASEMAN project from Barekat Foundation in Sistan region. The required data consisted of the performance statistics of the above-mentioned projects, and the required analysis was conducted on the dat.
Finding- Each of these projects has positive achievements in accordance with its short-term goals. Although it is quantitatively desirable, they failed to continue to operate in a regular and stable planning process in rural areas. Execution of a process model for rural development planning requires institutional transformations and the establishment of an integrated facility direction system for the economic infrastructure of rural areas (with a focus on the value chain) and a series of previous and subsequent jobs in each chain. 
Research limitations/implications- Among the main limitations of reformation in the programs and continuous learning from past experiences are the effort of conductors in charge of implementing rural development projects to indicate the expected achievements by relying on seemingly favorable statistics with false documentation, and the weakness or lack of a public oversight system on the actual achievements of projects. Real decentralization in the country's rural planning system, the establishment of a public oversight system, and a process planning are the best strategies for sustaining local communities.


Appadurai, A. (2004). The capacity to aspire: Culture and the terms of recognition. In V. Rao, & M. Walton (Eds.), Culture and public action (pp. 1-36). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Bahadori, F. (1396/2017). Evaluation of integrated and participatory development plan in rural livelihood sustainability (comparison of Rigan's RFLDL plans and carbon sequestration of Jazmourian). (Unpublished master's thesis). Sistan & Baluchestan University, Zahedan, Iran. [In Persian].
Barghi, H., Ghanbari, Y., Saeedi, M. (1392/2013). A study of the performance of Islamic village councils and the level of people's participation in rural development (Case study: Hosseinabad County, Najafabad County). Quarterly Journal of Space Economics and Rural Development, 2(2), 119-138. [In Persian].
Bazrafshan, J., & Paidar, A., (1396/2017). Evaluating environmental culture's reproduction in rural areas (Case Study: A pilot of carbon sequestration project in Jazmourian). Journal of Research and Rural Planning, 2(15), 165-180. [In Persian].
Darini, S. (1397/2018). Investigating the economic effects of implementing participatory development programs in rural areas in south of Kerman. (Unpublished master's thesis). Guilan University, Guilan, Iran. [In Persian].
Du Toit, D., & Pollard, S. (2008). Updating public participation in IWRM: a proposal for a focused and structured engagement with catchment management strategies. Water Sa, 34(6), 707-713.
Falsolaiman, M., & Hajipour, M. (1390/2011). Examining of NGOs stability in rural regions, experiences of international carbon sequestration project in Southern Khorasan Province. Journal of Applied Researches in Geographical Sciences, 20(23), 108-128. [In Persian].
Falsolaiman, M., & Chakoshy, B. (13902011). Socio- economic Monitoring and evaluating of international Carbon sequestration project in hosseinabad plain In Southern Khorasan province. Arid regions Geographic Studies, 1(3), 101-118. [In Persian].
FAO. (1994). Small Farmer Development Programme in Thailand.
FAO. (2006). The New Generation of Watershed Management programmes and projects. Rome; FAO forestry paper 150
Fawaidi, F., Chahar Sooghi Amin, H., & Alipour, H. (2011). Factors Affecting the Success of Rural Women's Credit Fund: (A Case study: The International Carbon Sequestration project). Quarterly Journal of Village and Development, 14(4), 49-65.
Forests, Range and Watershed Management Organization: Office of Public Participation and Promotion. (2014). A research project entitled: The role of participation and empowerment of local communities in the formation of conservation and restoration of natural resources.
Ghorbani, M., Awadpour, L., & Sirmi Rad, M. (1397/2018). Analysis and evaluation of intra-group social capital in line with sustainable rural development (Kerman province - Rigan County). Social Studies and Research in Iran, 7(1), 1-23. [In Persian].
Ghorbani, M., Bouzarjomehri, K., Evazpour, L., & Mansouri, Z. (1396/2017). The efficacy of community-based management approach toward strengthening bridging social capital and reducing social exclusion (Case Study: Rigan County, Kerman Province). Journal of Research and Rural Planning, 6(18), 157-169. [In Persian]
Haderbadi G. R., & Pouyafar, M. (1395/2006). Mobilization of local communities and management of natural resources participation in arid and desert areas (successful experience of the international carbon sequestration project). Quarterly Journal of Jungle and Range, 70, 74-79. [In Persian].
Haderbadi, G. (2008). Study of a model of rural development (carbon sequestration project), Secretariat of the Expediency Discernment Council, Commission on Infrastructure and Production Affairs of the Department of Agricultural Sciences, Water and Natural Resources. No. 2, Report Code: 02-8722.
Hassannejad, M., Kohansal, M. R., & Ghorbani, M. (1390/2011). Incentive policies executing in international project of carbon sequestration in Iran for empowerment of local communities. Journal of Economics and Agricultural Development, 24(3), 323-34. [In Persian].
Hassannejad, M., Kohansal, M. R., & Ghorbani, M. (1390/2011). Factors affecting rural people participation in rural development groups. Quarterly Journal of Village and Development, 14(2), 73-91. [In Persian].
Kargar, A., Noosh Afarin, B., Yousefi, M, Habili, S., & Sardari, F. (1394/2015). Executive Progress Report 2013-2011: International Rehabilitation of Forest Landscapes and Degraded Land Project of with a special emphasis on wind erosion and saline soils. Tehran: Chahar Derakht. [In Persian].
Khan, S. S. (1981). Daudzai community development project: A case study from Pakistan’. In B. R. Crouch & S. Chamala (Eds.). Extension education and rural development (pp. 73-84), Vol. 1. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Mahni, I. (1397/2018). Resistance economic model for Qaleh Ganj County as a local model of sustainable development. The first scientific-experimental festival of the staff of the Mostazafan Foundation of Islamic Revolution, Bahman & Esfand, pp.1-11. [In Persian].
Mohammadi Yeganeh, B., Cheraghi, M., & Yazdani, Z. (1393/2014). Analysis of the factors affecting spatial distribution of poverty in rural areas by emphasizing on economic-social characteristics. Geography and Territorial Spatial Arrangement, 4(13), 83-96. [In Persian].
Nejadi, F., Abbasi, E., & Choobchian, S. (139/2016). The role of desert greening projects in increasing the social capital of local people (Shahdad carbon sequestration project). Journal of Rural Researches, 7(4), 607-617. [In Persian].
Nouri, M. (1380/2001). Evaluating the performance of complexes for rural welfare services in rural social welfare. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. [In Persian].
Rezaei, Y. Salimi, M. B., & Kheiri, S. (1394/2015). The role of payment facility of Keshavarzi Bank to small and medium-sized enterprises in creating jobs and production of agriculture sector using the client's point of view. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Agriculture, 2(3), 51-62. [In Persian].
Saberifar, R., Fal Soleyman, M., & Gheisari, M. (1391/2012). Sustainable local development and attracting maximum participation of people; Case Study: The experiences of international project of carbon sequestration. Geography and Development, 10(28), 41-54. [In Persian].
Seyed Alipour, S. K., Paidar, A., & Sadeqi, K. (1395/2016). Presenting spatial Model to improve rural livelihood by emophesizing on sustainable security (CSP in Jazmourian). Geography and Development,/ 14(44), 64-45. [In Persian].
Taheri, A., Farzi, H. & Fathi, M. (1397/2018), The Effects of the International Carbon Soil Project on Empowering the Local Community: Palangabad village, Eshtehard County. 7th National Conference on Rangeland in Iran, Ordibehesht 6-17, 12-1. [In Persian].
The Bureau of Carbon Sequestration Project (2007). Empowering people for environmental resources management. Thehran, Iran.
Yaghoubi Farani, A., Vahdat, H., & Latifi, S. (1393/2014). Identifying inhibitions of rural women's trend to home businesses. Women in Development & Politics, 11(4), 559-574. [In Persian].