Spatial Analysis of Tourism Impacts on the Economy of Rural Areas (Case Study: Rezvanshahr County, Iran)

Document Type : Scientific Articles


Kharazmi University


Purpose- Tourism, as a booming and dominant activity of this century, has a lot of effects in rural areas, including economic effects, which according to different spatial situations can have different intensity and directions of changes and developments. In this regard, this study was codified with the aim of spatial analysis of tourism impacts on rural areas of Rezvanshahr.
Design/methodology/approach- According to the purpose, nature and method, this study is considered as a developmental and descriptive-analytical research, respectively. Documentary and survey methods have been used to obtain the required information and the TOPSIS model has been used to rank the economic and social needs of the villages studied. Using SPSS and GIS software, the collected data was processed and Pearson correlation test was used in inferential analysis of data.
Findings- The results showed that the economic level of villages varies based on four indicators (the income level, unemployment rate, level of facilities and misery rate), the lowest and the highest of which are related to Kish-e-Khaleh village with 0.001 and Punnel village with 0.9056, respectively. Furthermore, the results of Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there is a significant relationship between the independent variable of the number of tourists and dependent variable of the local economy level with a correlation coefficient of 0.626 at a confidence level of 0.99.
Research limitations / implications- The lack of documented information and the indeterminate number of tourists, especially in rural areas, are the most important challenges and problems of the study.
Practical implications- Therefore, according to the findings, It is possible to shape the economic development of villages by developing tourism attractions and actualizing the potential of tourist attraction in settlements.
Originality/value- Numerous studies have, so far, been carried out on tourism and rural economics. However, this study is valued based on the spatial analysis of the economy in the rural areas of the three types of coastal, plain and mountainous/ highland in the district of Rezvanshah and has not been addressed in previous studies.


1. Akbarian Ronizi, S.R., & Badri, S.A. (2015). Analysis of the understanding of the effects and consequences of tourism development in rural areas. Journal of Geography & Development, 13(38), 47-62. [In Persian].
2. Azami, M., Jalilian, S., & Hashemi Amin. N. (2015). Socio-Economic and Environmental Impact of Sustainable Tourism. Journal of Tourism Planning & Development, 4(14), 154-174. [In Persian].
3. Briedenhann, J., & Wickens, E. (2004). Tourism routes as a tool for the economic development of rural areas—vibrant hope or impossible dream?. Tourism management, 25(1), 71-79.‏
4. Crouch, G. I. (1994). The study of international tourism demand: A survey of practice. Journal of Travel Research, 32(4), 41-55.‏
5. Foucat, V. A. (2002). Community-based ecotourism management moving towards sustainability, in Ventanilla, Oaxaca, Mexico. Ocean & Coastal Management, 45(8), 511-529.‏
6. Hadipour, M., Lasemipour, R., & Esmaeili, A. (2016). Participatory management of rural tourism and its role in sustainable development. Tourism Journal, 4(15), 63-68. [In Persian].
7. Hajinejad, A., Paydar, E., Bagheri, F. & Abdi, N. (2014). Development of Strategic Plan for Rural Tourism Development in Iran. Journal of Strategic and Macro Policies, 2(8), 111-135. [In Persian].
8. Iorio, M., & Corsale, A. (2010). Rural tourism and livelihood strategies in Romania. Journal of Rural Studies, 26(2), 152-162.
9. Iran Statistics Center. (2016). Land Register of Iran, Rezvanshahr Countty in 2016. Tehran: Iran Statistics Center. [In Persian].
10. Karimipour, A. (2012). The Role of Tourism Industry in Regional Economic Development: Understanding of Facilities and Constraints in Iran and the World. The 2nd National Conference on Strategic Development Strategies with the Focus of Regional Planning, Sanandaj, Iran. [In Persian].
11. Khani, F., Khosravi Mehr, H. & Tourani, A. (2014). Assessing the potential of rural tourism with an approach to addressing economic challenges. Journal of Rural Studies, 5(1), 191-212. [In Persian].
12. Mahmoodzadeh, S.M., & Arjomandian, S. (2017). Identifying and Ranking Entrepreneurial Opportunities in Rural Tourism. Journal Tourism & Planning Development, 6(20), 131-149. [In Persian].
13. MalekLi, M. & Pirhadi, Z. (2018). Rural tourism as an effective factor for the revival of the socioeconomic system in the villages of Iran. International Conference on Society and Environment, Tehran: Tehran University. [In Persian].
14. Management and Planning Organization of Guilan Province. (2016). Statistical Yearbook of Guilan Province. Deputy of Statistics and Information. [In Persian].
15. McCool, S. F. (1995). Linking tourism the environmental, and concepts of sustainability: setting the stage. In SF McCool, & AE Watson (Eds)., comps. Linking tourism, the environment at, and sustainability. Gen. Tech. Rep. INNNT-GTR-323. Ogden, UT: USDA, Forest service, intermountain Research.‏
16. McIntyre, G. (1993). Sustainable tourism development: guide for local planners. World Tourism Organization (WTO).‏
17. Mehrbani, B. (2016). Four Components of Sustainable Rural Tourism Development. The choice of the world travel writers from the world of economics. [In Persian]. http:// fields/ ruralplanning/ 432%DA%86%D9%87%D8%A7%D8%B1.
18. Mitchell, C. J., & Shannon, M. (2018). Exploring cultural heritage tourism in rural Newfoundland through the lens of the evolutionary economic geographer. Journal of Rural Studies, 59, 21-34.
19. Moradi, H. (2016). Designing a suitable entrepreneurship pattern in rural areas of Kermanshah, (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), Tehran: Kharazmi University. [In Persian].
20. Motiee Langroodi, S.H., & Kateb Azgomi, Z. (2017). Economic Impact of Development of Rural Tourism Activities in Bandar Anzali. Serd Journal, 6(21), 1-16. [In Persian].
21. Mottaghi, S. (2017). Economic transformation in the villages of tourism destination of Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province. Journal of Space Economy and Rural Development, (6), 197-214. [In Persian].
22. Mousavi, M. H., Sadat Asl, Z., & Sadat Asl, L. (2018). Distribution of rural tourism income between key sectors of the economy. Journal of Tourism Management Study, 13(41), 137-156. [In Persian].
23. Nabizadeh, Sh. (2015). Investigating the Impact of Rural Tourism on the Development of Local Communities. Conference on Culture, Tourism and Urban Identity (Mehr Andishan Institute). [In Persian].
24. Oruoji, H., Alizadeh, M., Abyaneh, V. & Safavi. S. R. (2018). Providing a Model for Assessing the Rural Tourism Economy in Iran. Journal of Geography & Planning Space, 8(29). 107-132. [In Persian].
25. Papoli Yazdi, M.H., & Sagaei, M. (2014). Tourism (Nature and concepts). Tehran: SAMT publication. [In Persian].
26. Rahimpour, A. (2013). Statistical analysis of the world tourism industry, future markets and its location. Tourism Journal, 1(1), 1-18. [In Persian].
27. Rezvani, M.R. (2008). Development of rural tourism with an emphasis on sustainable development. Tehran: Tehran University publication. [In Persian].
28. Rogers, D. L., Pendleton, B. F., Goudy, W. J., & Richards, R. O. (1978). Industrialization, income benefits, and the rural community. Rural Sociology, 43(2), 250.
29. Roknoddin Eftekhari, A., & Mahdavi, D. (2006). Rural tourism development strategies using the SWOT model. Journal of Human Science, 10(45), 1-30. [In Persian].
30. Sharifzadeh, A., & Moradinezhad, H. (2002). Sustainable development and rural tourism. Jihad 22(250 & 251), 52-63. [In Persian].
31. Sharpley, R. (2001). Rural Tourism, (R. Monshenizadeh, & F. Nasiri, Trans.). Tehran: Monshi publication. [In Persian]
32. Snieška, V., Barkauskienė, K., & Barkauskas, V. (2014). The impact of economic factors on the development of rural tourism: Lithuanian case. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 156, 280-285.‏.
33. Sojasi Gidari, H. Roknoddin Eftekhari, A & Mahdavi, D. (2016). Sustainable development of tourism entrepreneurship with an emphasis on rural areas. SAMT publisher, Tehran. Iran. [In Persian].
34. Sokhanvar, A., Çiftçioğlu, S., & Javid, E. (2018). Another look at tourism-economic development nexus. Tourism Management Perspectives, 26, 97-106.
35. Sugiyarto, G., Blake, A., & Sinclair, M. T. (2003). Tourism and globalization: Economic impact in Indonesia. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(3), 683-701.
36. Talaei Shokri, Sh., & Abdian, S. (2018). Tourism Development: An Active Strategy in Resistance Economics. [In Persian]. Retrived from
37. Yagoubi, M. Goreishi Minaabadi, M. B. & Movlaei Hashjin, N. (2016). The role of tourism on changing the pattern of housing in rural areas. Journal of Regional Planning, 6(24), 179-188. [In Persian].