The Efficacy of Community-Based Management Approach toward Strengthening Bridging Social Capital and Reducing Social Exclusion (Case Study: Rigan County, Kerman Province)

Document Type : علمی


1 University of Tehran

2 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad


Extended abstract
Regarding the significance of social capital in reducing social exclusion, the present study investigates the impact of community-based approach for strengthening bridging social capital and reducing social exclusion through applying social network analysis pre and post RFLDL community-based project implementation. Accordingly, heads of micro development committees of four villages including Ziaratshah, Dehreza, Rostam Abad-e- Ali Charak, and Aliabad Hashtsad Metri were scrutinized.
Applying survey method and through direct observation and interview with target groups, the nodes of the network including the micro-development committee heads (as the main decision makers in each sub-group) were specified in each region. These individuals (33 persons) were elected by villagers in four villages, i.e., Ziaratshah, Dehreza, Rostam Abad-e- Ali Charak, and Aliabad Hashtsad Metri. Trust and participation ties of heads were examined for evaluating the efficiency and effectiveness of this project aimed at investigating the bridging ties and measuring out-group social capital. The network analysis method used in this study was whole network method which scrutinizes all network members. Eventually, the gathered data were analyzed using UCINET software version 6.507. Indicators including density, reciprocity, transitivity of ties, and average geodesic distance were studied.
It was found out that the level of density of trust and participation ties of heads of the four villages increased following project implementation. Enhancement of density leads to higher trust, participation, and social capital which in turn increases reciprocity of trust and participation ties following project implementation. Enhancement of this indicator makes the network of heads more optimally sustainable. The average geodesic distance of trust and participation ties in the four villages was 2.05 and 2.09, respectively. These reached to 1.61 and 1.67 following project implementation. As the average geodesic distance value was near to 1, it is inferred that the speed of information and resource transfer among members was high and it is also indicative of high unity. Once the project was accomplished, the level of this value was evaluated moderate. E-I indicator of out-group trust doubled in the four pilot villages and regarding participation indicator, it increased 1.5 times as much as pre-project implementation. This in turn contributes significantly to enhancement of bridging social capital and consequently reduction of social exclusion.
It is argued that RFLDL project implementation in this village could have successfully led to trust building and provided favorable ground for participation and collaboration among heads of the rural development committees so that as more ties formed among members, bridging social capital also increased. Social capital can provide suitable condition for access to other human and financial resources and reduction of social exclusion. The level of institutionalization of traditions and local customs in one hand and sustainability and balance of network on the other hand was assessed moderately based on trust and participation ties. Strengthening of mutual relations for sustainability of network and improving social capital is therefore required. Fortunately, once project was through, it was revealed that this occurred at an optimum level. Regarding the significance of the speed of coordination in co-management process, reinforcement of trust and especially participation tie for boosting the speed of transfer, less average geodesic distance among individuals besides less time required for coordinating and uniting local beneficiaries are fundamentally important. Based on E-I indicator, it can be asserted that implementing local community's empowerment project (RFLDL) in four regions of Rigan District resulted in higher bridging social capital which in its turn reduced social exclusion.
Through sociological perspective, enhancement of social participation as an integration-oriented policy will lead to less social exclusion. Since higher bridging social capital is followed by less social exclusion, it is argued that RFLDL project which increased out-group relations, lessened social exclusion in pilot areas. Considering the significance of bridging social capital for reducing exclusion, reinforcement of bridging ties within a network is critically essential and is the main communication channel of micro development committee heads in the four regions. Comparing the pre and post project implementation conditions, it can be asserted that this project fell effective in strengthening the relations between villages. Improved social capital led to better participation and communication of individuals with one another and exclusion reduced, accordingly.


1. Abdul-Hakim, R., Abdul-Razak, N. A., & Ismail, R. (2010). Does social capital reduce poverty? A case study of rural households in Terengganu, Malaysia. European Journal of Social Sciences, 14(4), 556-566. ‏
2. Avramov, D. (2002). People, demography and social exclusion (Vol. 37). Strasbourg, Belgium: Council of Europe publication. ‏
3. Buckle, P. (2000). New Approaches to assessing vulnerability and resilience. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 15(2), 8-14.
4. Carlsson, L., & Berkes, F. (2005). Co-management concepts and methodological implications. Journal of Environmental Management, 75 (23), 65-76.
5. Darvishi, A., Ghorbani, M., Fakheran, S., & Safiyanian, A. R. (1393/2014). Network analysis and key factors in the management of wildlife (Habitat study area of Black-cock Qafqazy- Biosphere Reserve Arasbaran). Journal of Applied Ecology, 1(9), 29-40. [In Persian]
6. Davis, J., Kang, A., & Vincent, J. (2001). How important is improved water infrastructure to microenterprises? Evidence from Uganda. Journal of World Developed. 29(10): 1753-1767.
7. Ebrahami, F., Ghorbani, M., Salajageh, A. S., & Mohseni Saravi, M. (1393/2014). Social network analysis of local stakeholders in participatory management of water resources (Case study: Jajrud river - Darbandsar village). Journal of Management and Engineering of Watershed, 8(25), 47-56. [In Persian]
8. Firozabadi, S. A., & Sadeghi, A. R. (1389/2010). Social exclusion status of poor rural women. Iranian Journal of Social Issues, 1(1), 143-174. [In Persian]
9. Fischer, H.W. (2001). The deconstruction of the command and control model: A postmodern analysis. Annual Meeting of the European Sociological Association, Helsinki.
10. Ghorbani, M. (1394/2015a). National Plan of social network analysis, modeling, policy-making and implementation of participatory management of natural resources (phase II). Tehran: Department of Natural Resources, University of Tehran. [In Persian]
11. Ghorbani, M. (1394/2015b). Monitoring and evaluation of policy action plan document social networks in empowering local communities and territories land management. Tehran: Faculty of Natural Resources, Tehran University. [In Persian]
12. Ghorbani, M., & Dehbozorgi, M. (1392/2013). Stakeholder analysis, social power and network analysis in participatory management of natural resources. Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 8 (6), 141-157. [In Persian]
13. Ghorbani, M., Avazpour, L., & Khorasani, M. A. (1394/2015). Analysis and evaluation of the development of micro-networks of social capital in local sustainable development (Case study: RFLDL international project, city of Sarayan). Journal of Rural Studies, 6(23), 545-566. [In Persian]
14. Ghorbani, M., Salari, F., Saeedi Garghany, H. R., & Sanaie, A. (1394/2015). Analysis of the links in the network of trust and social participation of beneficiaries in participatory rangeland management (Case study: Gargo- area, Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad Province). Journal of Rangeland, 9(2), 181-194. [In Persian]
15. Hanneman, R. A., & Riddle, M. (2005). Introduction to social network methods. ‏ California: University of California.
16. Karegar, S., Nooshafarin, B., Yousefi, M., & Habili, R. (1394/2015). Forest and degraded land reclamation: International project's executive report (RFLDL). Birjand: Chaharderakht Publication. [In Persian]
17. Leahy, E., & Anderson, H. (2008). Trust Factors in Community–water Resources Management Agency Relationships. Journal of Landscape and Urban Planning, 8)87), 100–107.
18. Lienert, J., Schnetzer, F., & Ingold, K. (2013). Stakeholder analysis combined with social network analysis provides fine-grained insights into water infrastructure planning processes. Journal of Environmental Management, 15(125), 134- 148.
19. Ministry of Agriculture Jihad. (1393/2014). The activities and achievements of the RFLDL project. Birjand: South Khorasan RFLDL Project Office. [In Persian]
20. Mohseni Tabrizi, A. (1369/1990). Investigation of the roots of rural participation and its relationship with agricultural extension. Tehran: Delegation for the Promotion and Participation of the Ministry of Jihad-e Productivity. [In Persian]
21. Mohseni Tabrizi, A. R., Moeedfar, S., & Golabi, F. (1390/2011). Investigating social trust with a view to the generation. Journal of Applied Sociology, 21(1), 41-70. [In Persian]
22. Oakley, P., & Marsden, D. (1380/2001). Participatory approaches in rural development (M. Hosseini, Trans.). Tehran: Center for Research and Rural Issues, Ministry of Agriculture. [In Persian]
23. Poggi, A. (2004). Social Exclusion in Spain: Measurement Theory and Application. Barcelona: Department de Economia Aplicada, University Autonoma de Barcelona.
24. Richard, M. T. (2016). Structural characteristics of social capital in sustainable community development of selected arid regions in Iran (Unpublished Bachelor thesis). ETHZ University. 103p.
25. Salari, F. (1393/2014). Modeling and analyzing watershed network in Rezin watershed in Kermanshah (Unpublished master's thesis). Tehran: University of Tehran. [In Persian]
26. Stern, M. J., & Coleman, K.J. (2014). The Multidimensionality of Trust: Applications in Collaborative Natural Resource Management. Journal of Society & Natural Resources, 28(3),117–132.
27. Suzuki, E., Takao, S., Subramanian, S.V., Komatsu, H., Doi, H., & Kawachi, I. (2010). Does low work place social capital have detrimental effect on worker’s health? Social science and Medicine,70, 1367- 1372.
28. Taj bakhsh, K. (1389/2010). Social capital, trust, democracy and development. Tehran: Shirazeh publication. [In Persian]
29. Tajmazinani, A. (1390/2011). Literature review on the situation of young people in Iran and determination of prior issues related to the youth of the country (1th Ed.). Tehran: UNICEF Representative in Iran Publications. [In Persian]
30. Tavalaee, H., & Ali Pour, F. (2014). Community-based participatory research within the framework of symbolic interaction theory. Proceedings of the National Conference on Social Issues and Community-Based Approach, Department of Social Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran. [In Persian]
31. Tosi, M. A. (1991). Participation in ownership and management. Tehran: State Management Training Center. [In Persian]
32. Vignola, R., McDaniels, T.L, & Scholz, R, W. (2013). Governance structures for ecosystem-based adaptation: Using policy network analysis to identify key organizations for bridging information across scales and policy areas. Environmental Science & Policy, 31, 71-84.
33. Wasserman, S., & Faust, F. (1994). Social Network Analysis: Methods and applications. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
34. Zanini, M.T.F., & Migueles, C.P. (2013). Trust as an element of informal coordination and its relationship with organizational performance. Economia, 14(2), 77–87.