Document Type : علمی
University of Mashhad
International University of Sistan and Baluchestan
It is believed that most of the world's poor, are rural and is common and chronic poverty in the rural areas. The issue of poverty and its measurement and different ways of poverty alleviation and development in the economic literature, has a special place. This place has gained in the past decades. In general, in relation to the issue of poverty conceptualized and many comments been done. But in the case poverty in the rural areas, the concept of Robert Chambers the titled has the special significance "deprivation trap ", has the special significance. She in this regard, in this regard, five of the harmful and undesirable was explained. These factors include: household poverty, poor health, isolation, vulnerability and powerlessness. In the trying to evaluate and analyze the trap of deprivation in rural settlements is one of the most deprived areas of the country (Qasreqand County located in the southern province of Sistan and Baluchistan).
2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
The poverty compared to the social and physical environment, personal status and material and cultural needs of the person or group is a relative concept. In this research, is been paid the theory Robert Chambers. Robert Chambers believes in the trap of deprivation, vulnerability and powerlessness should be more study. From the perspective of Chambers, "poverty" is the most powerful determining factor. In this regard, the vulnerability has a role in the many chains deprivation. Its relationship to poverty when can be received that Person to endure the inevitable collateral of damage will be Pledge and selling part of its assets.
The method of this research is analytic. The study population, are all rural residents Qasreqand County (Qasreqand County located in the southern province of Sistan and Baluchistan). Indicators of Research was extracted from the theoretical basis and preliminary study from the study area. Information and data through were collected library research and field work (questionnaires). In order to test reliability, the method of operation and through Cronbach Alpha test with 30 samples, the ratio was 0.839, which is an acceptable value. Research data were processed using statistical methods, t-test and correlation and analyzed in SPSS software.
The Review Rating Average indices of deprivation trap of powerlessness and isolation also indicated that the highest and lowest level of average household poverty index of poverty in the region is allocated. As well as internal and direct relationship with each other indices (except the correlation between household poverty and the vulnerability, between household poverty and powerlessness, physical weakness and vulnerability between the vulnerability and powerlessness that was not statistically significant) was approved. Indirectly from the path of powerlessness (the inability of villagers in rural product marketing and elite influence of speculators in the market and lack of access to government facilities and etc. can be split) were effective in rural and isolated communities and to follow it against natural hazards and disasters is socially and economically vulnerable.
Additionally, illiteracy and with low literacy heads of households (53.4 and 27.2 percent high school diploma ignoramus percent) greatly contributed to the spread of isolation. Well as the topography the region and the geographical distribution of many Qasreqand County of villages and access problems penetrating the rural service centers to secure livelihoods and economic exchange, rural areas and put in isolation and transportation service has faced with difficulty. It can be said from the point of view of isolation has led to the exclusion of the villagers.
In general, the discussions, isolation and the vulnerability by strengthening the circle tighter on rural poverty. This is on powerlessness villagers for their rights to infiltrate influential power brokers and the lack of convenient access to government facilities and funds and etc. is added. All these cases represent a vicious circle of poverty and deprivation trap, ie village, which largely corresponds with the views of Robert Chambers.
Overall results is indicate weakness rural economic base of and the absence of appropriate policy and purposeful planning to organize the rural economy based on local potentials and talents, as well as the support of the outer (the government). The Villagers seriously the trap of deprivation is thrown. Serious dent agricultural sector (especially fuel) as the economic pillar villages of the region, issues such as lack of income and purchasing power and to comply with health and physical strength as well as weakness and isolation lead eventually to the vulnerability led to disasters and tragedies and powerlessness in the livelihoods and living administration.
This continuous chain the rural of deprivation in Qasreqand of county degree that can be generalized to all areas of the county. The results indicate a lack of the necessary infrastructure facilities needed to provide the rural population, especially the lack of attention to the development of rural economic infrastructure and organization of the economy the agricultural sector (fuel, mining dates citrus Mango) Sarbouk, especially in the sectors and Central and lack of attention to non-farm economy, including the economy, fishing, livestock and agriculture is the Talang District.