Document Type : علمی
Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch
Changes in infrastructure and natural ecosystems infection among rural communities is an example of recent developments. Perhaps the consumption patterns of urban development and the influx of some sources of pollution in the vicinity of villages and rural areas, environmental pollution, changing consumption patterns has provided the country's villages. In the meantime, one of the front lines of the relationship between man and the environment in rural communities, attitude and their approach to environmental features and capabilities will be around. It must be acknowledged that the human relationship with the natural environment in villages is from different cities. Rural livelihoods have a strong bond with nature. In addition, the formation of the built environment in the countryside, in the context of rural residential units are clearly influenced by their natural environment. This confirms the undeniable sensitivity and importance of the environment and designed to achieve sustainable and comprehensive development of villages. So, the present study is designed to answer the following questions:
•what is the place of producing waste and lack of waste regulation in most important environmental challenges of rural areas?
•what is the role of environmental pollution, changes in consumption patterns and the effects of the lack of rural tourism in the area under study?
• To what extent public participation and education are effective in organizing waste in the studied area?
2. THEORETICAL Framework
Today, besides the economic problems which made the most pressure in rural and agricultural parts of society, uncontrolled exploitation and destruction of the environment in rural areas which have direct exposure to natural areas are the most important problems in Iran that despite the sensitivity of continuing the issue dealing with the environment around us today is not well understood and analyzed. As the result of two reasons the villages are facing new conditions that their environment is full of pollution. First, because they are in transition from tradition to modernity, and in this way their life style and consumption patterns differ from the past and waste production in these areas is considered normal. On the other hand, expanding wave of tourism by producing large amounts of solid waste add to the hardships of the environment in these areas.
This study is descriptive-analytic in nature. To do this analysis, common methods of data collection (both documentary and field) were used. In addition to documentary resources, (especially in developing the theoretical foundations of research and explaining the situation) field methods were also used to collect data. The field studies (from rural areas) were based on observations and interviews with local managers. The population consisted of 486 villages in the three cities of Bandar Anzali, Rasht and Roodbar. To collect data, 196 area managers (for example based on the standard table of Morgan) filled in the questionnaires. Cluster sampling was applied, too.
Documentary and field studies showed that "the lack of surface water and sewage collection network," was the most important challenge of life in rural areas and "waste and lack of proper regulation of waste were in the third rank of environmental issues is the area of study. Based on the results of studies in the rural area, about 111 tons of waste is produced every day. Based on the components of the waste produced in the villages, 80.9 per cent can be recovered. Based on field studies of this research, 57 percent of the villages in the study use "house to house gathering" procedure. Burning the waste is prevalent in 33.3 percent of all villages of this area. The field studies of this research have revealed that in 87.5 percent of the sample a crisi called waste has been introduced. This study knows waste production to be related to population (69%) and the change of consumption pattern (87%).Of course, in connection with the organization of waste according to survey, the role of "public participation", "propaganda and education" and "Management are with 49.26% and 25%, respectively. Despite the complexity of the problem of waste management in rural areas, rural managers believe that environmental quality is not critical and even 86.8 of the environmental situation in rural areas is better than the last ten years.
The results of these indicators suggest a close score of cities and homogeneity of the cities in the enjoyment of rural housing indicators. So that based on cluster analysis, more than half of the province of West Azerbaijan in the field of utilization of rural housing indices are in good condition and the remaining cities are located in the middle and low-middle ranks. Therefore, to establish a regional balance and moving towards sustainable development, it is necessary to look at the development of housing policies, particularly in sparsely populated rural areas and settlements that are isolated and marginalized; otherwise disparities are seen more and more and villages will be subsequently discharged.
Today the villages next to the main towns, are the areas of biological-environmental challenges which totally changed the landscape of these areas. The results showed that environmental problems in rural areas in the study area are not the same due to geographical conditions and their performance, but the production of waste, particularly household waste is common damage to all villages in the area. And, the lack of regulation caused54 villages of the area to be in critical situation. Therefore, it is necessary to make an economic and environmental chance from the present threat by establishing waste separation workshops, forminga cooperative group and individual training in rural areas to develop recycling culture, and incentive policies Partnership (source separation).