##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Samira Mahmoodi Majid Yasouri Seyyedeh Fatemeh Emami

Abstract

Purpose- Place attachment is not just dependent on the place of birth and, as phenomenologists have acknowledged, "experience," is the most significant element of the perception of concepts and meaning of a place; accordingly, meaning in a place is directly related to the way of human perception and its related categories. The main objective of the present study is to investigate and analyze the spatial-geographic factors affecting place attachment of the Kurdish immigrants in Rudbar, Guilan province.
Design/methodology/approach- This study is quantitative in terms of the nature of the research and is descriptive-analytical in terms of data analysis. Data collection was done using library and documentary as well as field and survey methods. The statistical population of the study consisted of the Kurdish villages of Guilan province in Rudbar with 12 villages and a total population of 2,955 people. Using Morgan's table, the number of samples was determined as 340 people. To increase the level of confidence and reduce the error in data, the number of samples was increased and 355 questionnaires were finally completed. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by a number of professors in the geography department of Guilan University. Moreover, to determine the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha was run. The value of 0.874 was obtained for the coefficient.
Findings- The results of the study showed that there was a negative relationship between the location of the villages and the level of education and place attachment of the villagers in the way that the more the distance between the villages and districts, towns, and cities, the lower the sense of place attachment of the villagers would be. Based on the coefficient of determination (R2), 4.5% of the variance of place in the rural households under study was explained by these indicators. Also, with the increase in the education level of the villagers, place attachment is reduced. On the other hand, there was a direct and positive relationship between the duration of residence in the village and place attachment to the village, which means that people who had lived longer in the village had also more sense of place. The obtained results showed the effect of spatial-geographic factors on place attachment of rural households. Based on the coefficient of determination (R2), 99.1% of the variance of place attachment was explained by spatial, economic, and socio-political factors.
Research limitations/implications- A limitation of this study was the lack of easy access to the Kurdish villagers in the above-mentioned villages.
Originality/value- By providing the ideal conditions for living in different spatial (geographical) dimensions, one can strengthen place attachment in the villagers and significantly reduce its harmful consequences. For instance, despite the great ethnic and cultural differences with the host society within a long period of residence, the immigrant Kurds in Rudbar have been able to have pleasant feelings towards their place of life and somehow attach to it due to the existence of certain desirable spatial, social, and economic features and potentials such as proper and safe physical environment, intergroup and intragroup interactions, as well as desirable areas for earning money and employment.

Article Details

References
1. Alizadeh Aghdam, M. B., Ghaderi, A., Mohammadzadeh, F., & Rezaei, S. (1393/2014). The study of the relationship between social capital and ethnic identity (Case study: Tabriz university students). East Azarbaijan Law Enforcement Quarterly, 14(3), 61-85. [In Persian]
2. Badi’ee Azandahi, M., Panahandekha, M., & Mokhtari, R. (1388/2009). The role of a spatial sense in the native identity (Case study: Yasuj students in Tehran Universities). Geopolitical Quarterly, 4(2), 157- 175. [In Persian]
3. Baldwin, E. (1999). Introducing cultural studies. England, London: Edinburgh Gate.
4. Bonaiuto, M., Aiello, A., Perugini, M., Bonnes, M., & Ercolani, A. P. (1999). Multidimensional perception of residential environment quality and neighbourhood attachment in the urban environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 19, 331-352.
5. Bonaiuto, M., Fornara, F., & Bonnes, M. (2002). Indexes of perceived residential environment quality and neighborhood attachment in urban environments: A confirmation study on the city of Rome. Landscape and Urban Planning, 988, 1-12.
6. Bonnes, M., & Secchiaroli, G. (1995). Environmental psychology: A psycho-social introduction. United Kingdom: Sage.
7. Brown, B. B, & Perkins, D. D. (1992). Disruptions in place attachment. In I. Altman & S. M. Low (Eds.), Human behavior and environments: Advances in theory and research, place attachment (Vol. 12, pp. 279- 304). New York: Plenum Press.
8. Brown, G. (2005). Mapping spatial attributes in survey research for natural resource management: Methods and applications. Society and Natural Resources, 18(1), 17–39.
9. Brown, G., & Raymond, C. (2007). The relationship between place attachment and landscape values: Toward mapping place attachment. Applied Geography, 27, 89-111.
10. Budruk, M., Thomas, H., & Tyrrell, T. (2009). Urban green spaces: A study of place attachment and environmental attitudes in India. Society and Natural Resources, 22, 824–839.
11. Carmona, M. (2003). Public places, urban spaces. Oxford: Architectural Press.
12. Carmona, M., & Tiesdell, S. (2007). Urban design reader. Oxford: Architectural Press.
13. Christakopoulou, S., Dawson, J., & Gari, A. (2001). The community well-being questionnaire: Theoretical context and initial assessment of its reliability and validity. Social Indicators Research, 56(3), 321-351.
14. Cross, J. E. (2001, November). What is sense of place? Paper presented at the Twelfth Headwaters Conference, Archives of the Twelfth Headwaters Conference, November 2-4.
15. Dominy, M. (2001). Calling the station home: Place and identity in New Zealand’s high country. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.
16. Falahat, M. P. (1385/2006). The concept of the sense of place and its forming factors. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba Memari-Va-Shahrsazi, 26, 57-66. [In Persian]
17. Giuliani, M. V., & Feldman, R. (1993). Place attachment in a developmental and cultural context. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13, 267–274.
18. Hay, R. (1998). Sense of place in a developmental context. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18, 5–29.
19. Heydari, A., Matlabi, Gh., & Nekovey-Mehr, F. (1393/2014). An investigation of the relationship between sense of place and attachment to place in students' dormitories. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba Memari-Va-Shahrsazi, 19(1), 15-22. [In Persian]
20. Hidalgo, M. C., & Hernandez, B. (2001). Place attachment: Conceptual and empirical question. Journal of Environment Psychology, 21, 273-281.
21. Hummon, D. (1992). Community attachment: Local sentiment and sense of place. New York: Plenum.
22. Iranian Statistics Center. (1375/1996). Population and Housing Census in 2006, 2011. Retrieved from www.amar.org. [In Persian]
23. Javan Frozande, A., & Matlabi, Gh. (1390/2011). The concept of place attachment and its elements. Hoviatshahr, 5(8), 27-37. [In Persian]
24. Jordan, T. R. (2001). Introduction to cultural geography (S. Tullayi & M. Soleimani, Trans.). Tehran: Research Center for Culture, Arts, and Communication.
25. Jorgensen, B. S., & Stedman, R. C. (2001). Sense of place as an attitude: Lakeshore owner's attitudes toward their properties. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21, 233–248.
26. Kashi, H., & Bonyadi, N. (2013). Stating the model of identity of place-sense of place and surveying its constituents: A case study of pedestrian passages of Shahre Rey. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba Memari-Va-Shahrsazi, 18(3), 43-52.
27. Kaviani Rad, M., & Azizi Kaveh, A. (1389/2010). The role of identity of place in the occurrence of political action (Case study: Enghelab square and street, Tehran, Iran). Journal of Applied Geosciences Research, 17(20), 151-167. [In Persian]
28. Kyle, G., Graefe, A., Manning, R., & Bacon, J. (2004). Effects of place attachment on users’ perceptions of social and environmental conditions in a natural setting. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24, 213–225.
29. Lewicka, M. (2011). Place attachment: How far have we come in the last 40 years? Journal of Environmental Psychology, 31(3), 207-230.
30. Low, S. M. (1992). Symbolic ties that bind. In I. Altman & S. M. Low (Eds.), Place attachment (pp. 165-185). New York: Plenum.
31. Low, S. M., & Altman, I. (1992). Place attachment: A conceptual inquiry. In E. Relph (Ed.), Place and placelessness (pp. 43-57). London: Pion.
32. Lynch, K. (1960). The image of the city. Cambridge: MIT Press.
33. Manzo, L. C. (2003). Beyond house and haven: Toward a revisioning of emotional relationships with places. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23(1), 47-61.
34. Marcus, C. C. (1995). House as a mirror of self: Exploring the deeper meaning of home. Berkeley, CA: Conari Press.
35. Meshkini, A., Ghasemi, A., & Hamzehnejad, M. (1393/2014). Assessment of the sense of place attachment of the residents in the new cities (Case study: Hashtgerd new town). Geographic Space Quarterly, 14(48), 41-56. [In Persian]
36. Montgomery, J. (1998). Making a city: Urbanity, vitality and urban design. Urban Design, 1, 93-115.
37. Morgan, P. (2010). Towards a developmental theory of place attachment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(1), 11-22.
38. Negin Taji, S. (1389/2010). The role of physical elements in defining the sense of place. Manzar, 13, 24-29. [In Persian]
39. Pourjafar, M., Izadi, M. S., & Khabiri, S. (1394/2015). Place attachment; Conceptualization, principals and criteria. Hoviatshahr, 9(24), 43-64. [In Persian]
40. Pourjafar, M., Sadeghi, A. R., & Yousefi, R. (1387/2008) Recognition of the meaning effect on perpetuity of place: A case study of Hawraman-E-Takht village in Kurdistan. Journal of Housing and Rural Environment, 17(2), 2-17. [In Persian]
41. Pretty, G. H., Chipuer, H. M., & Bramston, P. (2003). Sense of place amongst adolescents and adults in two rural Australian towns: The discriminating features of place attachment, sense of community and place dependence in relation to place identity. Environmental Psychology, 23, 273-287.
42. Punter, J. (1991). Participation in the design of urban space. Landscape Design, 200, 24-27.
43. Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone. New York: Simon & Schuster.
44. Relph, E. (2007). Spirit of place and sense of place in virtual realities. Techne, 10(3), 17-25.
45. Rezvani, M. R., & Ahmadi, A. (1388/2009). Place and the role of culture in shaping the place identity. Cultural Communication Studies, 3(6), 45-68. [In Persian]
46. Rostamalizadeh, V., Ghasemi-Ardahi, A., & Rostami, N. (1392/2013). Factors affecting the rural youth survival: A case study of Ahar. Journal of Rural Studies, 4(3), 505-534. [In Persian]
47. Sadrian, Z., Hosseini, S. B., & Norouzian Maleki, S. (1393/2014). Promoting the sense of place attachment through the renovation of the worn texture with respect to the interface space (Case study: Garden Shater of Tehran). Journal of Iranian Architecture and Urban Science Association, 7, 35-44. [In Persian]
48. Salvesen, D. (2002). The making of place. Retrieved from http://www.matr.net/print-4108.html
49. Shafiy Masouleh, S. (1393/2014). Investigating the factors affecting attachment to place and its status in urban planning: A case study of Bandar Anzali (Unpublished master's thesis). Guilan University, Iran. [In Persian]
50. Shamai, S. (1991). Sense of place: An empirical measurement. Geoforum, 22, 347-358.
51. Sharifi, M., Ramesht, M. H., Rafiyan, M., & Ghavidel, J. (1392/2013). Identity of place and its perception with the geosystem approach. Geography and Environmental Planning, 24(50): 1-22. [In Persian]
52. Shokouii, H. (1392/2013). New thoughts in the philosophy of geography: Environmental philosophy and geographic schools (Vol. 2). Tehran: Gitashenasi Issue. [In Persian]
53. Shieh, A., & Ghazi Tabatabai, S. H. (1389/2010). Comparing the role of social identity factors in old and new residential neighborhoods. Paper presented at the Contemporary Iranian National Conference on Architecture and Urban Planning, Iran, Islamic Azad University of Beyaza Branch. [In Persian]
54. Sircus, J. (2001). Invented places. Prospect, 81, 30-35.
55. Stedman, R. C. (2002). Toward a social psychology of place: Predictive behavior from place-based cognitions, attitudes, and identity. Environmental Behavior, 34, 561-581.
56. Stedman, R. C. (2003). Is it really just a social construction? The contribution of the physical environment to sense of place. Society and Natural Resources, 16(8), 671-685.
57. Steele, F. (1981). The sense of place. Boston: CBI Publishing Company.
58. Stefanovic, I. L. (1998). Phenomenological encounters with place: Cavtat to square one. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18, 31-44.
59. Trell, E. M., Van Hoven, B., & Huigen, P. (2012). It’s good to live in Järva-Jaani but we can’t stay here: Youth and belonging in rural Estonia. Journal of Rural Studies, 28, 139-148.
60. Williams, D. R., & Patterson, M. E. (1996). Environment meaning and ecosystem management: Perspectives from environmental psychology and human geography. Society and Natural Resources, 9(5), 507–521.
61. Williams, D. R., & Vaske, J. J. (2003). The measurement of place attachment: Validity and generalizability of a psychometric approach. Forest Science, 49(6), 830–840.
How to Cite
محمودیس., یاسوریم., & امامیس. ف. (2018). A Spatial- Location Analysis of the Factors Affecting Place Attachment (Case Study: Kurdish Villages, Rahmatabad and Blokat Districts, Rudbar County). Journal of Research and Rural Planning, 7(3), 61-82. https://doi.org/10.22067/jrrp.v7i3.67562
Section
Scientific & Research